Neuronal Firing Pattern Modulation

Abstract

Neurons generate diverse patterns of action potentials, depending on the intrinsic electrical properties of the neurons and on synaptic inputs from other neurons. The firing pattern of a neuron can be regulated, often by neurotransmitters acting via G proteinā€coupled receptors to modulate voltageā€dependent ion channels.

Keywords: action potential; bursting; adaptation; ion channel; neurotransmitter

Figure 1.

Schematic illustration of some possible neuronal firing patterns. Action potentials are simple vertical lines, and subthreshold changes in voltage are not shown. (a–d) Spontaneous activity, in the absence of inputs. Injection of hyperpolarizing current may cause an ‘anode break’ action potential (e) or burst (f). Depolarizing current can evoke a variety of responses (g–m).

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References

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Further Reading

Benson JA and Adams WB (1987) The control of rhythmic neuronal firing. In: Kaczmarek LK and Levitan IB (eds) Neuromodulation, pp. 100–118. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hille B (1992) Ionic Channels of Excitable Membranes, 2nd edn. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

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Levitan ES, Kramer RH and Levitan IB (1987) Augmentation of bursting pacemaker activity by egg‐laying hormone in Aplysia neuron R15 is mediated by a cyclic AMP‐dependent increase in Ca2+ and K+ currents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 84: 6307–6311.

Loechner KJ and Kaczmarek LK (1989) Regulation of ion channels in Aplysia neurons by autoactive peptides and second messengers. Society of General Physiologists Series 44: 69–82.

Steriade M (1993) Cholinergic blockage of network‐ and intrinsically generated slow oscillations promotes waking and REM sleep activity patterns in thalamic and cortical neurons. Progress in Brain Research 98: 345–355.

Strong JA and Kaczmarek LK (1987) Potassium currents that regulate action potentials and repetitive firing. In: Kaczmarek LK and Levitan IB (eds) Neuromodulation, pp. 119–137. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Jones, Stephen W(Apr 2001) Neuronal Firing Pattern Modulation. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000174]