Algal Cell Walls

Abstract

Algae represent a diverse group of mostly photosynthetic eukaryotes that are profoundly important to Earth's ecosystems and human economy. These organisms possess a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) components that are critical for multiple life functions. The most well‐studied ECMs are cell walls that are common to the green algae, red algae and brown algae. The typical cell wall consists of crystalline fibrillar polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose) that interact with a surrounding matrix of polysaccharides and proteoglycans. The matrix polysaccharides may be sulfated or acidic and some can complex various cations to form hard surfaces. Other distinct cell wall‐like coverings are found in algae including glycoprotein walls of volvocalean flagellates and silica‐complexed frustules of diatoms. Other noncell wall ECM types of algae include the amphiesma or dinoflagellates and the coccosphere of haptophytes.

Key Concepts

  • Algae possess a variety of extracellular matrices including cell walls.
  • Most green, red and brown algae have cell walls consisting of a composite of a fibrillar polysaccharide framework associated with a polysaccharide/protein matrix.
  • Unique cell walls are found in some algal groups including crystalline glycoprotein cell walls of volvocalean green algae and silica‐complexed cells walls of diatoms.
  • Many algae do not have cell walls but have coverings made of complex scales and plates.
  • The cell wall is synthesised and deposited externally through the coordinated action of the endomembrane and cytoskeletal systems.

Keywords: algae; cell walls; extracellular matrix; scales; coccosphere; frustule; amphiesma

Figure 1. The scaly extracellular covering of the green alga, Mesostigma viride. (a) View through the flattened, biflagellated cell showing the noticeable scale‐covering (arrowheads). Bar, 1 mm. (b) Glancing section of the cell surface. Note the three layers of the scales, the small underlayer of scales (long arrow), the middle layer, oval scales (small arrowhead) and the large basket scales (wide arrow). Bar, 500 nm. (c) View through a preparation of isolated basket scales (arrows). Bar, 500 nm. (d) Magnified view of the basket scale (arrow) revealing the intricate design of the lattice and supporting struts. Bar, 60 nm. (e) A whole cell labelled with a fluorescent‐labelled antibody raised against the basket scale. Note the linear array of scales (arrows) upon the cell surface. Approximately 800 scales can cover a typical cell. Bar, 3 mm. (a–d) were processed for conventional transmission electron microscopy while (e) was processed for immunofluorescence light microscopy.
Figure 2. The cell wall of the chlamydomonad green alga, Gloeomonas kupfferi. (a) Thin section through the wall; (b) deep etch freeze fracture preparation of the cell wall. For details, see Domozych and Dairman . Note the multilayered nature of the wall with a dense, fibrillar, inner layer (IL), a crystalline median layer (arrowheads) and a fibrous outer layer (OL). The chlamydomonad cell wall consists of an aggregation of hydroxyproline‐rich glycoproteins. (a) Bar, 275 nm; (b) Bar, 250 nm.
Figure 3. The cell wall of the CGA taxon, Penium margaritaceum. (a) JIM5, a monoclonal antibody that is specific to high esterified pectin, labels the pectin lattice of the mature wall. (b) CBM3a, a carbohydrate‐binding module that is specific for crystalline cellulose labels the inner wall of the cell wall. (c) JIM7, a monoclonal antibody that binds to high esterified pectins labels a thin band in the cell centre. See Domozych et al. for details. (a) Bar, 5 mm, (b) Bar, 5 mm and (c) Bar, 17 mm.
Figure 4. Transmission electron microscopy of the cell wall of the CGA taxon, Penium margaritaceum. The most distinctive component of the wall is a series of dense aggregation of pectin fibrils that form a unique outer lattice. Bar, 200 nm.
Figure 5. Scanning electron microscopy images of the diatom Didymosphaenia. (a) This diatom produces a silica‐based frustule and a distinct stalk. (b) The frustule (arrow) is highly ornate with multiple openings, several of which are used for the extrusion of EPS. (a) Bar, 50 mm, (b) Bar, 20 mm.
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Further Reading

Domozych DS (2015) Cell wall evolution and diversity. In: Ramawat KG and Merillon J‐M (eds) Polysaccharides, pp. 55–79. Switzerland: Springer.

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Winter A and Siessner WG (1994) Coccolithophores. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Domozych, David(Jan 2019) Algal Cell Walls. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000315.pub4]