Budding is a form of asexual reproduction utilized by unicellular fungi known as yeast. A small protuberance is formed on the cell wall that grows in size until it is almost the size of the original yeast cell, forming a narrow neck between the two cells. Cytokinesis then occurs at the neck between the two cells.

Keywords: budding; yeast; fungi; asexual reproduction; dimorphism

Figure 1.

The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in various stages of budding. Top row, haploid; bottom row, diploid. Note the difference in size.

Figure 2.

Haploid and diploid yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcofluor‐stained bud scars as visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Left, axial budding; right, bipolar budding.



Banuett F (1995) Genetics of Ustilago maydis, a fungal pathogen that induces tumors in maize. Annual Review of Genetics 29: 179–208.

Bulawa CE (1993) Genetics and molecular biology of chitin synthesis in fungi. Annual Review of Microbiology 47: 505–534.

Byers B (1981) Cytology of the yeast life cycle. In: Strathern JN, Jones EW and Broach JR (eds) The Molecular Biology of the Yeast Saccharomyces: Life Cycle and Inheritance, pp. 59–96. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Press.

Chant J and Pringle JR (1995) Patterns of bud‐site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Cell Biology 129(3): 751–765.

Cid VJ, Durán A, Del Rey F et al. (1995) Molecular basis of cell integrity and morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology Reviews 59(3): 345–386.

Hawksworth DL (1998) Kingdom Fungi: Fungal phylogeny and systematics. In: Collier L, Balows A and Sussman M (eds) Microbiology and Microbial Infections, vol. 4: Ajello L and Hay RJ (eds) Medical Mycology. London: Arnold Publishing.

Johnson BF, Miyata M and Miyata H (1989) Morphogenesis of fission yeasts. In: Nasim A, Young P and Johnson BF (eds) Molecular Biology of the Fission Yeast. New York: Academic Press.

Madden K and Snyder M (1998) Cell polarity and morphogenesis in budding yeast. Annual Review of Microbiology 52: 687–744.

Madhani HD and Fink GR (1998) The control of filamentous differentiation and virulence in fungi. Trends in Cell Biology 8: 348–353.

Orlowski M (1991) Mucor dimorphism. Microbiology Reviews 55(2): 234–258.

Porter JR (1976) Antony van Leeuwenhoek: Tercentenary of his discovery of bacteria. Bacteriology Reviews 40(2): 260–269.

Pringle JR, Adams AEM, Drubin DG and Haarer BK (1991) Immunofluorescence methods in yeast. Methods in Enzymology 194: 565–601.

Further Reading

Bos CJ (ed.) (1996) Mycology, vol. 13: Fungal Genetics: Principles and Practice. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Bossche HV, Odds FC and Kerridge D (eds) (1993) Dimorphic Fungi in Biology and Medicine. New York: Plenum Press.

Wickes BL, Mayorga MA, Edman U and Edman JC (1996) Dimorphism and fruiting in Cryptococcus neoformans: Association with the α‐mating type. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 93: 7327–7331.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Goebl, Mark G, and Schweitzer, Kelly(Apr 2001) Budding. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000348]