Anamorphic Fungi


The anamorphic fungi are an artificial assemblage of asexual stages of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. They are classified together with asexually reproducing fungi that lack sexual structures. In this article, we review the classification and morphology of these moulds, and comment on their biology.

Keywords: teleomorph; asexual stage; conidiogenesis; pleomorphic fungi; hyphomycetes; coelomycetes

Figure 1.

Conidiophore of Fusarium graminearum dissected out of a sporodochium, showing conidiophore branching, phialidic conidiogenous cells and emerging conidia.

Figure 2.

Penicillium roqueforti, the fungus used for the production of blue cheeses. A single conidiophore, showing the branching structure, ending in phialidic conidiogenous cells that produce spherical conidia.

Figure 3.

Penicillium vulpinum, a mould occurring on dung. Synnematous conidiomata with green masses of dry conidia.

Figure 4.

Trichoderma harzianum, a common soil fungus, showing sporulating pustules on agar colonies, its green conidia and the characteristic branching pattern of its conidiophores.

Figure 5.

Cladosporium macrocarpum, a frequent colonizer of dead plant debris. Agar colony, acropetal chains of conidia, conidiophores and detached conidia.

Figure 6.

Alternaria alternata, a common agent of biodeterioration on many substrates. Conidia produced in chains from pores in conidiogenous cells.



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Further Reading

Barron GL (1977) The Nematode‐destroying Fungi. Topics in Mycobiology No. 1, pp. 1–140. Guelph, Ontario: Canadian Biological Publications.

Cole GT and Kendrick WB (1981) Biology of Conidial Fungi, vols 1 and 2. New York: Academic Press.

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Ellis MB (1971, 1976) (More) Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Kew: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.

de Hoog GS, Guarro J, Gené J and Figueras MJ (2000) Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd edn. Utrecht: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.

Ingold CT (1975) An Illustrated Guide to Aquatic and Water‐borne Hyphomycetes with Notes on their Biology, Scientific Publication No. 30, 96pp. Ambleside, Cumbria: Freshwater Biological Association.

Kendrick WB (ed.) (1971) Taxonomy of Fungi Imperfecti. Proceedings of the First International Specialists’ Workshop‐Conference, Kananaskis, Alberta, Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Seifert KA and Gams W (2000) The taxonomy of anamorphic fungi. In: McLaughlin D, McLaughlin E and Lemke P (eds) The Mycota, vol. 7, pp. 307–347. Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer.

Subramanian CV (1983) Hyphomycetes, Taxonomy and Biology. London: Academic Press.

White JF, Bacon CW, Hywel‐Jones NL and Spatafora JW (eds) (2003) Clavicipitalean Fungi: Evolutionary Biology, Chemistry, Biocontrol, and Cultural Impacts. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

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How to Cite close
Gams, Walter, and Seifert, Keith A(Sep 2008) Anamorphic Fungi. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000351.pub2]