Fungal Fermentation: Industrial


Industrial fermentation with fungi is used to produce a number of commercial products. Fungal metabolism is exploited to manufacture ethanol, citric acid, steroids, antibiotics and other substances with applications in the food, fuel, chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: fungi; fermentation; metabolites; antibiotics; microbiology

Figure 1.

Changes associated with citric acid production by submerged fermentation with Aspergillus niger (from Villet, ). —, Mycelium (mg dry wt per 0.5 mL); – –, citric acid (mg L−1); – ‐ – ‐, respiratory quotient (an index of oxygen uptake); –⋅–⋅, sucrose (mg per 0.1 mL); ‐ ‐ ‐, pH; ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅, titratable acid.

Figure 2.

Natural and synthetic penicillins are derived from the penicillin core, which bears the β‐lactam ring. Some examples of penicillins made by (a) fermentation with Penicillium species, (b) fermentation with Cephalosporium species, and (c) fermentation in the presence of synthetic precursors.

Figure 3.

The chemical structure of cephalosporin C, an antibiotic obtained from species of Cephalosporium, and 7‐ACA, its derivative which serves as starting material for many semisynthetic cephalosporins of clinical importance.



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Further Reading

Arora DK (ed.) (1992) Handbook of Applied Mycology, vols 1–5. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Bennett JW and Ciegler A (eds) (1983) Secondary Metabolism and Differentiation in Fungi. New York: Marcel Dekker.

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Blanch HW, Drew S and Wang DIC (eds) (1985) Comprehensive Biotechnology. The Principles, Applications and Regulations of Biotechnology in Industry, Agriculture and Medicine. The Practice of Biotechnology: Current Commodity Products, vol. 3. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

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Crueger W and Crueger A (1990) Biotechnology: A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology, 2nd edn. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Finklestein DB and Ball C (eds) (1992) Biotechnology of Filamentous Fungi. Technology and Products. Stoneham MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann.

Hui YH and Khachatourians GG (eds) (1995). Food Biotechnology. Microorganisms. New York: VCH Publishers.

Rehm HJ and Reed G (eds) (1986) Biotechnology, vols 1–8. Weinheim, Germany: VCH Verlagsgesellschaft.

Vandamme EJ (ed.) (1984) Biotechnology of Industrial Antibiotics. New York: Marcel Dekker.

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Bigelis, Ramunas(Apr 2001) Fungal Fermentation: Industrial. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000357]