Psychrophiles and Psychrotrophs

Abstract

Psychrophiles are extremophilic bacteria or archaea which are cold‐loving, having an optimal temperature for growth at about 15°C or lower, a maximal temperature for growth at about 20°C and a minimal temperature for growth at 0°C or lower. Psychrotrophs are cold‐tolerant bacteria or archaea that have the ability to grow at low temperatures, but have optimal and maximal growth temperatures above 15 and 20°C, respectively. The Earth has extensive cold ecosystems that do not reach temperatures greater than 5°C (e.g. worldwide deep oceans, polar surface, polar ice‐cap regions, permafrost). Psychrophiles and psychrotrophs are cold‐loving extremophiles adroitly adapted to these environmental conditions, and are often capable of enduring extended periods of cryobiosis.

Keywords: barophiles; cryophiles; cryobiosis; psychrotrophs; psychrophiles; extremophiles

References

Baross JA and Morita RY (1978) Microbial life at low temperatures: ecological aspects. In: Kushner DJ (ed.) Microbial Life in Extreme Environments, pp. 9–71. London: Academic Press

Breezee J, Cady N and Staley JT (2004) Subfreezing growth of the sea ice bacterium Psychromonas ingrahamii. Microbial Ecology 47: 300–304.

Cavicchioli R (2006) Cold‐adapted archaea. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4: 331–343.

Chintalapati S, Kiran MD and Shivaji S (2004) Role of membrane lipid fatty acids in cold adaptation. Cellular and Molecular Biology 50: 631–642.

Dalluge JJ, Hamamoto T, Horikoshi K et al. (1997) Posttranscriptional modification of tRNA in psychrophilic bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 179: 1918–1923.

D'Amico S, Collins T, Marx J‐C et al. (2006) Psychrophilic microorganisms: challenges for life. EMBO Reports 7: 385–389.

DeLong EF, Franks DG and Yayanos AA (1997) Evolutionary relationships of cultivated psychrophilic and barophilic deep‐sea bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 2105–2108.

DeLong EF, Wu KY, Prezelin BB and Jovine RVM (1994) High abundance of Archaea in Antarctic marine picoplankton. Nature 371: 695–697.

Deming JW (2002) Psychrophiles and polar regions. Current Opinion in Microbiology 5: 301–309.

Feller G and Gerday C (2003) Psychrophilic enzymes: hot topics in cold adaptation. Nature Reviews Microbiology 1: 200–208.

Franzmann PD, Liu Y, Balkwill DL et al. (1997) Methanogenium frigidum sp. nov., a psychrophilic, H2‐using methanogen from Ace Lake, Antarctica. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 47: 1068–1072.

Gilbert JA, Davies PL and Laybourn‐Parry J (2005) A hyperactive, Ca2+‐dependent antifreeze protein in an Antarctic bacterium. FEMS Microbiology Letters 245: 67–72.

Gilbert JA, Hill PJ, Dodd CER and Laybourn‐Parry J (2004) Demonstration of antifreeze protein activity in Antarctic lake bacteria. Microbiology 150: 171–180.

Hamamoto T, Takata N, Kudo T and Horikoshi K (1995) Characteristic presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine psychrophilic vibrios. FEMS Microbiology Letters 129: 51–56.

Harder W and Veldkamp H (1971) Competition of marine psychrophilic bacteria at low temperatures. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 37: 51–63.

Herbert RA and Bhakoo M (1979) Microbial growth at low temperatures. Society for Applied Bacteriology Symposium Series 13: 1–16.

Ingraham JL (1962) Temperature relationships. In: Gunsalus IC and Stanier RY (eds) The Bacteria, Vol. 4, pp. 265–296. New York: Academic Press

Junge K, Eicken H and Deming JW (2004) Bacterial activity at −2 to −20°C in Arctic wintertime sea ice. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 550–557.

Krembs C, Eicken H, Junge K and Deming JW (2002) High concentrations of exopolymeric substances in Arctic winter sea ice: implications for the polar ocean carbon cycle and cryoprotection of diatoms. Deep‐Sea Research I 49: 2163–2181.

Methé BA, Nelson KE, Deming JW et al. (2005) The psychrophilic lifestyle as revealed by the genome sequence of Colwellia psychrerythraea 34 H through genomic and proteomic analyses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102: 10913–10918.

Morita RY (1975) Psychrophilic bacteria. Bacteriological Reviews 39: 144–167.

Morita RY and Moyer CL (2001) Origin of psychrophiles. In: Levin SA, Colwell R, Daily G et al. (eds), Encyclopedia of biodiversity, Vol. 4, pp. 917–924. San Diego: Academic Press

Nichols CM, Bowman JP and Guezennec J (2005) Effects of incubation temperature on growth and production of exopolysaccharides by an Antarctic sea ice bacterium grown in batch culture. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71: 3519–3523.

Oliver JD and Stringer WF (1984) Lipid composition of a psychrophilic marine Vibrio sp during starvation induced morphogenesis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 47: 461–466.

Price PB and Sowers T (2004) Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101: 4631–4636.

Rotert KR, Toste AP and Steiert JG (1993) Membrane fatty acid analysis of Antarctic bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters 114: 253–258.

Russell NJ (1992) Physiology and molecular biology of psychrophilic micro‐organisms. In: Herbert RA and Sharp RJ (eds) Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Extremophiles, pp. 203–224. Glasgow: Blackie

Staley JT and Gosink JJ (1999) Poles apart: biodiversity and biogeography of sea ice bacteria. Annual Review of Microbiology 53: 189–215.

Vorobyova E, Soina V, Gorlenko M et al. (1997) The deep cold biosphere: facts and hypothesis. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 20: 277–290.

Yayanos AA (1986) Evolutional and ecological implications of the properties of deep‐sea barophilic bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 83: 9542–9546.

Further Reading

D'Amico S, Claverie P, Collins T et al. (2002) Molecular basis of cold adaptation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 357: 917–925.

Georlette D, Blaise V, Collins T et al. (2004) Some like it cold: biocatalysis at low temperatures. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 28: 25–42.

Gounot A‐M (1991) Bacterial life at low temperature: physiological aspects and biotechnological implications. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 71: 386–397.

Herbert RA (1981) Low temperature adaption in bacteria. In: Morris GJ and Clarke A (eds) Effects of Low Temperature on Biological Membranes, pp. 41–54. London: Academic Press

Mock T and Thomas DN (2005) Recent advances in sea‐ice microbiology. Environmental Microbiology 7: 605–619.

Morita RY (1966) Marine psychrophilic bacteria. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 4: 105–121.

Russell NJ (1990) Cold adaptation of microorganisms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 326: 595–611.

Russell NJ (2000) Toward a molecular understanding of cold activity of enzymes from psychrophiles. Extremophiles 4: 83–90.

Veld GI, Driessen AJ and Konings WN (1993) Bacterial solute transport proteins in their lipid environment. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 12: 293–314.

Zecchinon L, Claverie P, Collins T et al. (2001) Did psychrophilic enzymes really win the challenge? Extremophiles 5: 313–321.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Moyer, Craig L, and Morita, Richard Y(Apr 2007) Psychrophiles and Psychrotrophs. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000402.pub2]