Enteroviruses

Abstract

Enteroviruses are commonly encountered, widely circulating, single‐stranded positive‐sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome human viruses that cause a variety of benign to serious diseases including myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, and possibly type 1 diabetes. Numerous cell culture and mouse models of pathogenesis are available which with molecular clones of the viral genomes, make the enteroviruses, especially the group B coxsackieviruses, an excellent system to probe molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of common viral illnesses.

Keywords: picornavirus; RNA; disease; coxsackievirus; echovirus; poliovirus

Figure 1.

The enteroviral genome is a single strand of positive‐sense RNA that is approximately 7400 nucleotides in length. Sizes of the genomic regions are approximate only. Length of the genome is indicated by kilobase (kb). A 3′‐polyadenylate (polyA) tract terminates the enterovirus genome. In the virion RNA, the viral protein VPg is covalently linked to the genomic 5′‐terminus. The proteins in each of the coding regions (P1, P2, P3) are noted in their translational order in boxes below the map.

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Further Reading

Ansardi DC, Porter DC, Anderson MJ and Morrow CD (1996) Poliovirus assembly and encapsidation of genomic RNA. Advances in Viral Research 46: 1–68.

Palmberg AC and Sgro J‐Y (1998) Topological organization of picornaviral genomes: statistical prediction of RNA structural signals. Seminars in Virology 8: 231–241.

Rotbart HA (ed.) (1995) Human Enteroviral Infections. Washington, DC: ASM Press.

Tracy S, Chapman NM and Mahy BWJ (eds) (1997) The coxsackie B viruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 223

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Chapman, Nora M, Kim, Kyung‐Soo, and Tracy, Steven M(Apr 2006) Enteroviruses. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0004285]