Virus Host Cell Receptors

Abstract

Viruses are intracellular pathogens that use receptor molecules on the cell surface for their entry. Viral receptors are therefore important determinants of tissue tropism and pathogenesis of the disease.

Keywords: viral receptors; signalling; virus entry; antiviral drugs

Figure 1.

Schematic structures of viral host cell receptors. CAR is a receptor for coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses, CD155 is a poliovirus receptor, CD4 is recognized by Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), whereas intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)‐1 acts as a receptor for most rhinoviruses. These four molecules are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily containing typical immunoglobulin‐like domain structures. Integrins are dimers that consist of α and β subunits. Integrins mediate cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, and they are cellular receptors for members of several virus groups including adenoviruses, hantaviruses and picornaviruses. DAF (decay‐accelerating factor; CD55) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol‐anchored complement regulatory protein that plays a role in the initiation of echovirus infection. Chemokine receptors are utilized by HIV during its entry into host cells.

Figure 2.

Examples of virus–receptor interactions. (a) Cross‐section of part of the human rhinovirus capsid shows a depression surrounding the 5‐fold axis (top of figure) with a narrow channel structure in the middle. The terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)‐like domain (D1) of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)‐1 binds to the outer wall of the depression and mediates virus–cell interactions that lead to attachment, entry and uncoating of the virus. These events can be blocked by drugs that attach to the pocket structure under the bottom of the depression. (b) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) recognizes primarily the CD4 molecule on the cell surface. As a consequence of this interaction, the external part (gp120) of the viral membrane protein undergoes structural changes that allow its binding to the chemokine receptors. Subsequently, the fusion peptide is exposed in the transmembrane protein gp41, and it causes the fusion of viral and cellular membranes that is followed by internalization of the capsid of the virus particle.

close

Further Reading

Bergelson JM, Cunningham JA, Droguett G et al. (1997) Isolation of a common receptor for coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5. Science 275: 1320–1323.

Bergelson JM, Shepley MP, Chan BM, Hemler ME and Finberg RW (1992) Identification of the integrin VLA‐2 as a receptor for echovirus 1. Science 255: 1718–1720.

Dorig RE, Marcil A, Chopra A and Richardson CD (1993) The human CD46 molecule is a receptor for measles virus (Edmonston strain). Cell 75: 295–305.

Evans DJ and Almond JW (1998) Cell receptors for picornaviruses as determinants of cell tropism and pathogenesis. Trends in Microbiology 6: 198–202.

Flint SJ, Enquist LW, Krug RM, Racaniello VR and Skalka AM (eds) (1999) Principles of Virology: Molecular Biology, Pathogenesis, and Control. Washington DC: ASM Press.

Greber UF (2002) Signalling in viral entry. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 59: 608–626.

Greve JM, Davis G, Meyer AM et al. (1989) The major human rhinovirus receptor is ICAM‐1. Cell 56: 839–847.

Knipe DM, Lamb RA, Martin MA et al. (eds) (2001) Fields’ Virology, 4th edn Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

LaBranche CC, Galasso G, Moore JP et al. (2001) HIV fusion and its inhibition. Antiviral Research 50: 95–115.

Maddon PJ, Dalgleish AG, McDougal JS et al. (1986) The T4 gene encodes the AIDS virus receptor and is expressed in the immune system and the brain. Cell 47: 333–348.

Mendelsohn CL, Wimmer E and Racaniello VR (1989) Cellular receptor for poliovirus: molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Cell 56: 855–865.

Nemerow GR (2000) Cell receptors involved in adenovirus entry. Virology 274: 1–4.

Pelkmans L, Fava E, Grabner H et al. (2005) Genome‐wide analysis of human kinases in clathrin‐ and caveolae/raft‐mediated endocytosis. Nature 436: 78–86.

Roivainen M, Piirainen L, Hovi T et al. (1994) Entry of coxsackievirus A9 into host cells: specific interactions with αVβ3 integrin, the vitronectin receptor. Virology 203: 357–365.

Sieczkarski SB and Whittaker GR (2002) Dissecting virus entry via endocytosis. Journal of General Virology 83: 1535–1545.

Smith AE and Helenius A (2004) How viruses enter animal cells. Science 304: 237–242.

Spear PG, Eisenberg RJ and Cohen GH (2000) Three classes of cell surface receptors for alphaherpesvirus entry. Virology 275: 1–8.

Staunton DE, Merluzzi VJ, Rothlein R et al. (1989) A cell adhesion molecule, ICAM‐1, is the major surface receptor for rhinoviruses. Cell 56: 849–853.

Weis W, Brown JH, Cusack S et al. (1988) Structure of the influenza virus haemagglutinin complexed with its receptor, sialic acid. Nature 333: 426–431.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Hyypiä, Timo(Sep 2006) Virus Host Cell Receptors. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000433.pub2]