Dissimilatory Metal Transformations by Microorganisms

Abstract

There has been a dramatic increase in the understanding of the biological mechanisms underpinning metal transformations in the environment. The techniques used to gain a better understanding of these microbial processes will be discussed, along with an overview of assimilatory, dissimilatory and detoxification transformations of a range of metals and radionuclides.

Keywords: dissimilatory metal reduction; bioremediation; anaerobes; cytochromes; electron transfer

Figure 1.

Mechanism of uptake of Fe(III) by Gram‐negative bacteria. (Adapted from Andrews et al..

Figure 2.

Mechanisms of reduction of insoluble Fe(III) oxides, via direct contact with the surface of the cell (top) or an extracellular electron shuttle (bottom). Adapted from Lloyd .

Figure 3.

Bacterial mercury resistance by proteins encoded by the mer operon.

close

References

Andrews SC, Robinson AK and Rodriguez‐Quinones F (2003) Bacterial iron homeostasis. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27: 215–237.

Hobman JR and Brown NL (1997) Bacterial mercury resistance genes. Metal Ions in Biological Systems 34: 527–568.

Islam F, Gault AG, Boothman C et al. (2004) Role of metal‐reducing bacteria in arsenic release from Bengal Delta sediments. Nature 430: 68–71.

Lloyd JR (2003) Microbial reduction of metals and radionuclides. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27: 411–425.

Lovley DR, Phillips EJP, Gorby YA and Landa E (1991) Microbial reduction of uranium. Nature 350: 413–416.

Lovley DR (1991) Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction. Microbiology Reviews 55: 259–287.

Lovley DR (2003) Cleaning up with genomics: applying molecular biology to Bioremediation. Nature Reviews Microbiology 1: 36–44.

Lovley DR, Stolz JF, Nord GL and Phillips EJP (1987) Anaerobic production of magnetite by a dissimilatory iron‐reducing microorganism. Nature 330: 252–254.

Myers CR and Nealson KH (1988) Bacterial manganese reduction and growth with manganese oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Science 240: 1319–1321.

Oremland RS and Stolz JF (2003) The ecology of arsenic. Science 300: 939–944.

Wang Y‐T (2000) Microbial reduction of Cr(VI). In: Lovely DR (ed.) Environmental Microbe–Metal Interactions, pp. 225–235. Washington DC: ASM Press

Further Reading

Frausto da Silva JJR and Williams RJP (1993) The Biological Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Lloyd JR, Chesnes J, Glasauer S et al. (2002) Reduction of actinides and fission products by Fe(III)‐reducing bacteria. Geomicrobiology Journal 19, 103–120.

Lloyd JR, Lovley DR and Macaskie LE (2003) Biotechnological application of metal‐reducing bacteria. Advances in Applied Microbiology 53: 85–128.

Mukhopadhyay R, Rosen B, Phung L and Silver S (2002) Microbial arsenic: from geocycles to genes and enzymes. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 26: 311.

Nies DH (2003) Efflux‐mediated heavy metal resistance in prokaryotes.FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27: 313–339.

Thamdrup B (2000) Bacterial manganese and iron reduction in aquatic sediments. Adv. Microbiology Ecology 16: 41–84.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Lloyd, Jonathan R(Jan 2006) Dissimilatory Metal Transformations by Microorganisms. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000474]