Ti Plasmids

Abstract

Ti plasmids are plasmids from the genus Agrobacterium that encode a natural system of plant transformation. They are used extensively as vectors for plant genetic engineering.

Keywords: Ti plasmids; agrobacterium; plant transformation vectors; plant genetic engineering; plant–microbe interactions

Figure 1.

Genetic map of an octopine Ti plasmid.

Figure 2.

Transfer of the T‐DNA to the plant cell and its control by the vir genes.

Figure 3.

Induction of opine synthesis in the crown gall cell and use of opines by the bacterium.

Figure 4.

Agrobacterium strain for genetic engineering. The strain contains a T‐DNA‐less helper plasmid and a binary vector with an artificial T‐DNA. nptII‐P and nptII‐B designate genes which are expressed in the plant (P) or in the bacterium (B); oriV (BHR), broad host range origin of replication.

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References

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Further Reading

Farrand SK, Piper SK, Sackett R et al. (1996) Homoserin lactone‐mediated microbial signaling: a communication system common to plant‐associated bacteria. In: Stacey G, Mullin B and Gresshoff PM (eds) Biology of Plant–Microbe Interactions, pp. 173–179. St Paul, MN: International Society for Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions.

Gaudin V, Vrain T and Jouanin L (1994) Bacterial genes modifying hormonal balances in plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 32: 11–29.

Hooykaas PJJ and Beijersbergen A (1994) The virulence system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Annual Review of Phytopathology 32: 157–179.

Kim K‐S and Farrand SK (1997) Characterization of the acc operon from the nopaline‐type Ti plasmid pTiC58, which encodes utilization of agrocinopines A and B and susceptibility to agrocin 84. Journal of Bacteriology 179: 7559–7572.

Lessl M and Lanka E (1994) Common mechanisms in bacterial conjugation and Ti‐mediated T‐DNA transfer to plant cells. Cell 7: 321–324.

Levesque H, Delepelaire P, Rouzé P, Slightom J and Tepfer D (1998) Common evolutionary origin of the central portions of the Ri TL‐DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and the Ti T‐DNAs of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Molecular Biology 11: 731–744.

Otten L, Canaday J, Gérard J‐C et al. (1992) Evolution of Agrobacteria and their Ti plasmids – A review. Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions 5: 279–287.

Tempé J, Guyon P, Tepfer D and Petit A (1979) The role of opines in the ecology of the Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium. In: Timmis KN and Pühler A (eds) Plasmids of Medical, Environmental and Commercial Importance, pp. 353–361. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press.

Winans S (1992) Two‐way chemical signaling in Agrobacterium–plant interactions. Microbiological Reviews 56: 12–31.

Zupan JR and Zambryski P (1997) The Agrobacterium DNA transfer complex. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 16: 279–295.

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How to Cite close
Otten, Leon(Apr 2001) Ti Plasmids. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000477]