Vaccination is the generic term for immunization procedures. Immunization is a procedure whereby living or nonliving materials are introduced into the body in order to stimulate the defence system, namely the lymphoid tissues, with a view to rendering a person or animal immune to a disease.

Keywords: immunization; nucleic acid; vaccines; adjuvant; side effects; antigen

Figure 1.

The last patient to suffer from natural paralytic poliomyelitis in the western hemisphere (Pichinaki, Peru). Widespread immunization has caused the cessation of transmission in the Americas since 1991.


Further Reading

Levine MM, Woodrow GC, Kaper JB and Cobon GS (eds) (2003) New Generation Vaccines. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Nossal GJV and Coppel R (2002) Reshaping Life: Key Issues in Genetic Engineering, 3rd edn. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

Nossal GJV (2003) Vaccines. In: Paul WE (ed.) Fundamental Immunology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott‐Raven.

Plotkin SL and Orenstein WA (1999) Vaccines, 3rd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

The Jordan Report, 20th Anniversary (2002) Accelerated Development of Vaccines. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

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Nossal, Gustav JV(Sep 2005) Vaccination. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0003971]