Vaccines: Whole Organism


Vaccines are designed to protect people or animals against the clinical symptoms associated with infection by particular pathogenic agents. They are composed of antigens, derived from pathogens, that can be presented to the immune system in order to induce a protective immune response.

Keywords: Immune response; protective antigens; reactogenicity; endotoxins; vaccinology; whooping cough


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Levine MM, Woodrow GC, Kaper JB and Cobon GS (1997) New Generation Vaccines, 2nd edn. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Rappuoli R (1997) Rational design of vaccines. Nature Medicine 3: 374–376.

Further Reading

Jordon W (1998) The Jordon Report: Accelerated Development of Vaccines 98. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health.

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Dougan, Gordon(Apr 2001) Vaccines: Whole Organism. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000491]