Immunity to Fungi

Abstract

The medically important fungi are a diverse group of pathogens that employ a variety of virulence strategies to establish themselves in the host. Successful host defence against fungi requires collaboration between the innate and acquired immune systems. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved is leading to advances in therapeutics.

Keywords: immune system; fungus; humoral immunity; cellular immunity; immunotherapy

Figure 1.

The interplay of innate and adaptive immunity in response to fungal invasion. Orange boxes show potential therapeutic interventions. Key: , fungal cell death; Th, T helper cell; TReg, T regulatory cell; IL, interleukin; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; IFN, Interferon; TGF, transforming growth factor; PRR, pattern‐recognition receptor; MBL, mannan‐binding lectin; GM‐CSF, granulocyte–macrophage colony‐stimulating factor; G‐CSF, granulocyte colony‐stimulating factor (with thanks to Jessica Killingley).

close

References

Allen JE and Maizels RM (1997) Th1Th2: reliable paradigm or dangerous dogma. Immunology Today 18: 387–392.

Atallah E and Schiffer CA (2006) Granulocyte transfusion. Current Opinion in Hematology 13: 45–49.

Bellocchio S, Montagnoli C, Bozza S et al. (2004) The contribution of the toll‐like/IL‐1 receptor superfamily to innate and adaptive immunity to fungal pathogens in vivo. Journal of Immunology 172: 3059–3069.

Carpenter S and O'Neill LA (2007) How important are toll‐like receptors for antimicrobial responses? Cellular Microbiology 9(8): 1891–1901.

Casadevall A, Feldmesser M and Pirofski LA (2002) Induced humoral immunity and vaccination against major human fungal pathogens. Current Opinion in Microbiology 5(4): 386–391.

Cassone A (2008) Fungal vaccines: real progress from real challenges. Lancet Infectious Diseases 8: 114–124.

Feldmesser M and Casadevall A (1997) Effect of serum IgG1 against murine pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. Journal of Immunology 158: 790–799.

Granell M, Urbano‐Ispizua A, Suarez B et al. (2006) Mannan‐binding lectin pathway deficiencies and invasive fungal infections following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Experimental Hematology 34: 1435–1441.

Herre J, Willment JA, Gordon S and Brown GD (2004) The role of Dectin‐1 in antifungal immunity. Critical Reviews in Immunology 24(3): 193–203.

Masuoka J (2004) Surface glycans of Candida albicans and other pathogenic fungi: physiological roles, clinical uses and experimental challenges. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 17: 281–310.

McGuirk P and Mills KH (2002) Pathogen‐specific regulatory T cells provoke a shift in the Th1/Th2 paradigm in immunity to infectious diseases. Trends in Immunology 23: 450–455.

Mignon B, Tabart J, Baldo A et al. (2008) Immunization and dermatophytes. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 21: 134–140.

Netea MG, Sutmuller R, Hermann C et al. (2004) Toll‐like receptor 2 suppresses immunity against Candida albicans through induction of IL‐10 and regulatory T cells. Journal of Immunology 172: 3712–3718.

Netea MG, Van Der Graaf CA, Vonk AG et al. (2002) The role of toll‐like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in the host defense against disseminated candidiasis. Journal of Infectious Disease 185: 1483–1489.

Netea MG, Warris A, Van der Meer JWM et al. (2003) Aspergillus fumigatus evades immune recognition during germination through loss of toll‐like receptor‐4‐mediated signal transduction. Journal of Infectious Disease 188: 320–326.

Nucci M and Marr KA (2005) Emerging fungal diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases 41(4): 521–526.

Pachl J, Svoboda P, Jacobs F et al. (2006) Mycograb Invasive Candidiasis Study Group. A randomized, blinded, multicenter trial of lipid‐associated amphotericin B alone versus in combination with an antibody‐based inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 in patients with invasive candidiasis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 42: 1404–1413.

Perruccio K, Tosti A, Burchielli E et al. (2005) Transferring functional immune responses to pathogens after haploidentical hematopoietic transplantation. Blood 106: 4397–4440.

Romani L (2004) Immunity to fungal infections. Nature Reviews. Immunology 4(1): 1–23.

Smith TJ, Khatcheressian J, Lyman GH et al. (2006) 2006 update of recommendations for the use of white blood cell growth factors: an evidence‐based clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Oncology 24: 3187–3220.

Zelante T, De Luca A, Bonifazi P et al. (2007) IL‐23 and the Th17 pathway promote inflammation and impair antifungal immune resistance. European Journal of Immunology 37: 2695–2706.

Further Reading

Cutler JE, Deepe GS Jr and Klein BS (2007) Advances in combating fungal diseases: vaccines on the threshold. Nature Reviews. Microbiology 5: 13–28.

Hospenthal DR and Rinaldi MG (eds) (2008) Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Mycoses. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. ISBN: 978‐1‐58829‐822‐5.

Levitz SM (2004) Interactions of toll‐like receptors with fungi. Microbes and Infection 6: 1351–1355.

Segal BH, Kwon‐Chung J, Walsh TJ et al. (2006) Immunotherapy for fungal infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases 42: 507–515.

Warnock DW (2006) Fungal diseases: an evolving public health challenge. Medical Mycology 44: 697–705.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Killingley, Ben, and Kibbler, Chris(Sep 2008) Immunity to Fungi. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000494.pub2]