Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

Abstract

Oxidation–reduction reactions in nature are usually catalysed by enzymes classified broadly as oxidoreductases. These enhance the rate of electron transfer from an oxidizable substrate, typically a hydrogen donor, to a reducible acceptor.

Keywords: oxidoreductases; dehydrogenases; reductases; oxidases; oxygenases; peroxidases; haem systems; catalases; pyridine nucleotides; flavins

Figure 1.

Stereospecific hydride ion transfer to/from the nicotinamide moiety in NAD(P)‐dependent oxidoreductases.

Figure 2.

Biological redox states of flavocoenzymes with pKa values for interconversions of free species.

Figure 3.

Catalytic mechanism of a typical NADPH‐dependent flavoprotein disulfide reductase with the intermediacy of a flavin C(4a)‐thio adduct.

Figure 4.

Principal redox participants in the flow of electrons from metabolism of substrates to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

Scheme
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References

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Further Reading

Creighton DJ and Murthy NSRK (1990) Stereochemistry of enzyme‐catalyzed reactions at carbon. In: Sigman DS and Boyer PD (eds) The Enzymes, vol. XIX, Mechanisms of Catalysis, pp. 323–421. New York: Academic Press.

Dolphin D, Poulson R and Avamovic O (eds) (1987) Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes, parts A and B. New York: Wiley‐Interscience.

Lehninger AL, Nelson DL and Cox MM (1993) Principles of Biochemistry, chap. 18, pp. 542–594. New York: Worth Publishers.

McCormick DB (1996) Coenzymes, biochemistry of. In: Meyers RA (ed.) Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology and Molecular Medicine, pp. 396–406. New York: VCH Publishers.

Müller F (ed.) (1991) Chemistry and Biochemistry of Flavoenzymes, vols I and II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Walsh C (1979) Enzymatic Reaction Mechanisms, pp. 349–521. San Francisco: WH Freeman.

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McCormick, Donald B(May 2003) Oxidation–Reduction Reactions. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000610]