Adenosine Triphosphate

Abstract

Adenosine triphosphate consists of the purine adenine linked through its N9 to d‐ribose via a β‐N‐glycosidic C(1′) linkage; the α‐phosphoryl group is linked via an ester linkage to the alcoholic O of ribose (C5′), and the β‐ and γ‐phosphoryl groups form anhydride bonds. The chemical energy stored in the anhydride bonds is released upon hydrolysis at the γ‐ or β‐phosphorus.

Keywords: structure; catalysis; metabolism; energy transduction

Figure 1.

Structure of ATP. The purine base, adenine, is linked to d‐ribose by a β–N‐glycosidic bond. The 5′ position of ribose is linked by an ester bond to Pα, which in turn is linked by an anhydride bond to Pβ and Pγ of a pyrophosphate moiety.

Figure 2.

The processes that synthesize and utilize ATP.

Figure 3.

A schematic representation of ATP synthase. The F1 component (α3β3γδε) is arranged in a flattened sphere of alternating α and β subunits. Together with the γ subunit, which anchors the c subunits, the rotatory motor is formed with the γ subunit as the drive shaft. F1 is further connected to F0, which is responsible for proton translocation, by a stalk consisting of the subunits δ and b2.

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Further Reading

Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J et al. (2002) Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edn, part IV, section 14, New York, Garland Science.

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Walker JE, Saraste M, Runswick MJ and Gay NJ (1982) Distantly related sequences in the α and βsubunits of ATP synthase, myosin, kinases and other ATP‐requiring enzymes and a common nucleotide binding fold. EMBO Journal 1: 945–951.

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Cohn, Mildred(Sep 2005) Adenosine Triphosphate. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0003881]