Glycolysis Regulation


Glycolysis provides an important source of energy for most cells as well as a source of substrate for a number of other metabolic pathways. Its regulation is complex, involving allosteric control, phosphorylation control and transcriptional control of glycolytic enzymes. Modulation of fructose 2,6‐bisphosphate has emerged as one of the key sites at which glycolysis is controlled.

Keywords: hexokinase; phosphofructokinase; glyceraldehyde‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase; Pasteur effect; substrate cycles

Figure 1.

Overview of the glycolytic pathway.

Figure 2.

Supply of glucose 1‐phosphate from endogenous and exogenous sources.

Figure 3.

Control of phosphofructokinase (PFK‐1) activity.



Berman HK and Newgard CB (1988) Fundamental metabolic differences between hepatocyte and islet β‐cells revealed by glucokinase overexpression. Biochemistry 37: 4543–4552.

Randle PJ, Garland PB, Hlaes CN and Newsholme EA (1963) The glucose/fatty acid cycle. Its role in insulin sensitivity and the metabolic disturbances of diabetes mellitus. Lancet i: 785–789.

Halse R, Fryer LG, McCormack JG, Carling D and Yeaman SJ (2003) Regulation of glycogen synthase by glucose and glycogen: a possible role for AMP‐activated protein kinase. Diabetes 52(1): 9–15.

Further Reading

Depre C, Rider MH, Veitch K and Hue L (1993) Role of fructose 2,6‐bisphosphate in the control of heart glycolysis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268: 13274–13279.

Girard J, Ferre P and Foufelle F (1997) Mechanisms by which carbohydrates regulate expression of genes for glycolytic and lipogenic enyzmes. Annual Review of Nutrition 17: 325–352.

King LM and Opie LH (1998) Glucose and glycogen utilisation in myocardial ischemia – changes in myocardial metabolism and consequences for the myocyte. Molecular and Cell Biochemistry 180: 3–26.

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How to Cite close
Lopaschuk, Gary D, and Dyck, Jason RB(Sep 2005) Glycolysis Regulation. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0003882]