Transition State Stabilization

Abstract

The transition state is a high‐energy species occurring during the course of chemical reactions, the stabilization of which by either chemical reagents or enzymes enhances the rate of the given process.

Keywords: transition‐state; inhibitor; deaminase; protease; Rubisco; drug design

Figure 1.

(a) The energy profile for a hypothetical catalysed and an uncatalysed reaction. The TSUncat and ES are transition state species for uncatalysed and enzyme‐catalysed reactions, respectively, and and refer to their corresponding free energy differences. ΔΔG is the stabilization energy of the enzyme–transition state complex. (b) Thermodynamic cycle depicting the two different possible pathways for arriving at the transition state species ES.

Figure 2.

Several transition state species and their corresponding transition state analogues.

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References

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Further Reading

Cleland WW, Andrews TJ, Gutteridge S, Hartman FC and Lorimer GH (1998) Mechanism of Rubisco: the carbamate as a general base. Chemical Reviews 98: 549–561.

Fersht A (ed.) (1998) Structure and Mechanism in Protein Science: A Guide to Enzyme Catalysis and Protein Folding. New York: WH Freeman.

Morrison JF (1988) The behavior and significance of slow‐binding inhibitors. Advances in Enzymology 61: 201–301.

Ngo TT and Tunnicliff G (1981) Inhibition of enzymic reactions by transition state analogs: an approach for drug design. General Pharmacology 12: 129–131.

Northrop DB (1981) The expression of isotope effects on enzyme‐catalyzed reactions. Annual Reviews of Biochemistry 50: 103–131.

Thomas NR (1994) Hapten design for the generation of catalytic antibodies. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 47: 345–373.

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How to Cite close
Mobashery, Shahriar, and Kotra, Lakshmi P(Mar 2002) Transition State Stabilization. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000618]