Polysaccharides: Energy Storage

Abstract

Storage polysaccharides such as glycogen in animals and starch in plants represent a major energy reserve in living organisms.

Keywords: starch; glycogen; inulin; laevan; laminaran; energy storage; reserve polysaccharides

Figure 1.

Scanning electron micrographs of starch granules from different botanical sources: (a) maize; (b) waxy maize; (c) amylomaize‐7; (d) oat; (e) rice; (f) wheat; (g) rye; (h) barley; (i) lima bean; (j) pea; (k,l) amaranth.

Figure 2.

Packing arrangements of double‐helical complexes that give A‐type X‐ray pattern and B‐type X‐ray pattern.

Figure 3.

Structural formulae for (a) amylose (n = 1000–2000) and (b) amylopectin (x, y, z = 15–20). RE = reducing end; NRE = nonreducing end.

Figure 4.

Structural models for glycogen and amylopectin: (a) Meyer ‘tree’ model for glycogen; (b) racemose or cluster model for amylopectin. RE = reducing end.

Figure 5.

Structures of fructans: (a) inulin (n = 10–15); (b) segment of laevan (n = 0–2).

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References

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Robyt JF (1984) Enzymes in the hydrolysis and synthesis of starch. In: Whistler RL, BeMiller JN and Paschall EF (eds) Starch: Chemistry and Technology, 2nd edn, pp. 87–124. San Diego: Academic Pressl.

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Further Reading

Banks W and Greenwood CT (1975) Starch and Its Components. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Geddes R (1985) Glycogen: a structural viewpoint. In: Aspinall GO (ed.) The Polysaccharides, vol. 3, pp. 284–336. New York: Academic Press.

Greenwood CT (1970) Starch and glycogen. In: Pigman W, Horton D and Herp A (eds) The Carbohydrates, vol. IIB, pp. 471–513. New York: Academic Press

Guilbot A and Mercier C (1985) Starch. In: Aspinall GO (ed.) The Polysaccharides, vol. 3, pp. 210–282. New York: Academic Press.

Robyt JF (1998) Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry. New York: Springer‐Verlag.

Stephen AM (1995) Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Whistler RL, BeMiller JN and Paschall EF (eds) (1984) Starch: Chemistry and Technology, 2nd edn. San Diego: Academic Press.

Whistler RL and BeMiller JN (eds) (1998) Starch: Chemistry and Technology, 3rd edn. San Diego: Academic Press.

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Robyt, John F(Apr 2001) Polysaccharides: Energy Storage. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000700]