Closteroviridae

Abstract

In memoriam: This chapter is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Professor Giovanni Paolo Martelli, former chair of the Closteroviridae Study Group and life member of the ICTV, who passed away in January 2020.

Closteroviridae is a family of plant viruses with filamentous, helically constructed particles showing distinct cross‐banding and varying in length from 650 nm (species with fragmented genome) to over 2000 nm (species with monopartite genome). The genome is a single‐stranded, positive‐sense ribonucleic acid, with size varying from 13 000 to nearly 19 000 nucleotides, thus being among the largest known for plant viruses. The family comprises four genera, Closterovirus, Ampelovirus, Crinivirus and Velarivirus, which differ in genome type (monopartite, bipartite or tripartite) and size, and in epidemiological behaviour. Closteroviruses are transmitted by aphids; ampeloviruses by pseudococcid mealybugs and soft scale insects and criniviruses by whiteflies, all with a semipersistent modality. No vectors are known for velariviruses. These viruses are mostly phloem‐restricted and are pathogenic to a wide range of herbaceous and woody crops, to which they may cause extensive damage. Control is based on preventive measures such as sanitary selection, sanitation and development of resistant cultivars, primarily through conventional breeding.

Key Concepts

  • Closteroviridae is a growing family of plant viruses with currently four genera.
  • All members of the family have filamentous virions with open particle structures and distinct cross‐banding.
  • Closteroviral genomes are among the largest for plant viruses and are highly diversified also within each genus.
  • The family represents a monophyletic lineage that has evolved in a modular way.
  • A characterising trait of three genera (Closterovirus, Ampelovirus and Crinivirus) is the type of vectors that mediate transmission from host to host.
  • Virus particles are primarily restricted to the phloem from where they are acquired by the vectors.
  • Virus dissemination over long distances is mediated by infected propagative material, rather than vectors.
  • Most members of the family have a restricted natural host range.
  • Disease control relies on preventive measures aimed at reducing vector populations and sources of inoculum.
  • Sanitary selection and sanitation are efficient means for producing certified stocks.

Keywords: taxonomy; plant viruses; semipersistent transmission; Closterovirus; Ampelovirus; Crinivirus; Velarivirus

Figure 1. Genome organisation of the two representatives of the genus Closterovirus. (a) beet yellows virus (BYV), the type species of the genus showing the relative position of the ORFs and their expression products. L‐Pro, papain‐like protease; MTR, methyltransferase; HEL, helicase; POL, RNA polymerase; p6, small hydrophobic protein; HSP70h, heat shock protein homologue; p64, product with some similarity with HSP90; CP, coat protein; CPm, minor coat protein; p20, product mediating systemic transport and p21, silencing suppressor, replication enhancer. The five‐gene block conserved among most of the family members mediates cell‐to‐cell movement. (b) Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), showing the position and expression products of the ORFs. Abbreviations are the same as in (a). ORFs are not drawn to scale.
Figure 2. Genome organisation of Grapevine leafroll‐associated virus 3 (GLRaV‐3) and Pineapple mealybug wilt‐associated virus 1 (PMWaV‐1), two representatives of the genus Ampelovirus with the largest (subgroup I) and smallest (subgroup II) genome, respectively, showing the relative position of the ORFs and their expression products. (a) GLRaV‐3 genome. L‐Pro, papain‐like protease; MTR, methyltransferase; AlkB, domain implicated in repair of RNA methylation damage; HEL, helicase; POL, RNA polymerase; p6 and p5, small hydrophobic proteins; HSP70h, heat shock protein 70 homologue; p55, product with some similarity with heat shock protein 90; CP, coat protein and CPm, minor coat protein. The function of the 3′ proximal genes is largely unknown. (b) PMWaV‐1 genome. Abbreviations are the same as in (a).
Figure 3. Genome organisation of grapevine leafroll‐associated virus 7 (GLRaV‐7), the type species of genus Velarivirus, showing the relative position of the ORFs and their expression products: L‐Pro, papain‐like protease; MTR, methyltransferase; HEL, helicase; POL, RNA polymerase; p8 and p4, small hydrophobic proteins; HSP70h, heat shock protein 70 homologue; p10, a product showing homology with the small‐sized proteins (p4–p10) coded for by RNA‐2 of some criniviruses; p61, a protein matching the comparable product, referred to as ‘p60’, encoded by all members of the family Closteroviridae; CP, coat protein; CPm, minor coat protein; p25 and p27, products neither of which shares similarities with other viral proteins in the current database.
Figure 4. Genome organisation of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV), the type species of the genus Crinivirus showing the relative position of the ORFs and their expression products. RNA‐1 encodes in the order: L‐Pro, papain‐like protease; MTR, methyltransferase; HEL, helicase; p30 POL, RNA polymerase; p31, protein with unknown function. RNA‐2 encodes, in the order: p5, small hydrophobic protein; HSP70h, heat shock protein 70 homologue; p59, product with some similarity with heat shock protein 90; p9, unknown function; CP, capsid protein; CPm, minor capsid protein and p26, unknown function.
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Further Reading

Agranovsky AA (2016) Closteroviruses: molecular biology, evolution and interactions with cells. In: Gaur RK, Petrov NM, Patil B and Stoyanova MI (eds) Plant viruses: Evolution and Management, pp 231–252. Springer Science and Business Media Singapore.

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Martelli GP, Saldarelli P and Boscia D (1997) Filamentous viruses of the grapevine: closteroviruses. In: Monette PL (ed.) Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants, pp 1–9. Research Signpost: Trivandrum.

Ruiz‐Ruiz S, Navarro B, Peña L, et al. (2019) Citrus tristeza virus: host RNA silencing and virus counteraction. In: Catara AF, Bar‐Joseph M and Licciardello G (eds) Citrus tristeza virus: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology, pp 195–207. Humana: New York.

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Candresse, Thierry, and Fuchs, Marc(Jun 2020) Closteroviridae. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000747.pub4]