Plant Virus Diseases: Epidemiology

Abstract

The epidemiology of plant virus diseases concerns the cyclical development of virus diseases within plant populations in time and space. It also deals with how and why a virus is spread by vectors in an ecosystem. The main factors that influence the epidemiology of plant virus diseases involve the viruses, the plant hosts and the vectors. The interactions between these factors are complex and depend on the species, strain and isolate of the virus, its host range and the ability of the vector to disseminate the virus. All components of the epidemiological process of a plant virus are influenced by the environmental conditions, both biotic and abiotic, which can determine the successful development of an epidemic. Knowledge of these factors is fundamental to the choice and improvement of control methods to prevent or eliminate plant virus diseases.

Key Concepts

  • Plant viruses are a concern for agriculture as virus diseases can cause qualitative and/or quantitative losses of yield.
  • Modern agriculture has caused the dissemination of exotic plant species, viruses and vectors into foreign environments.
  • The emergence of novel virus species and strains has been increasing worldwide in the past two decades.
  • Most plant viruses are transmitted by vectors, mainly insects.
  • A noticeable number of plant viruses have been found to pass from one generation to the next through seed.
  • Weeds and other wild plants play a key role as alternative virus reservoirs and as a source of novel viruses which can potentially infect crops.
  • Environmental factors, both physical and biotic, may affect the infection cycle at different grades.
  • Understanding of epidemiological processes is fundamental to the choice and improvement of control methods to eliminate the diseases that viruses cause.
  • Control strategies basically focus on the elimination of virus sources and the avoidance of spatio–temporal coincidences between viruses, vectors and crops.

Keywords: epidemics; plant diseases; crops; vectors; viruses; weeds

Figure 1. The factors involved in plant virus disease epidemiology, their main components and some of the significant interrelationships exemplified by the pathosystem greenhouse‐grown tomato/whitefly‐transmitted viruses. The right‐down inset shows a diagram of such factors and relationships. Photo of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by César Navas.
Figure 2. Commercial fields of citrus trees affected by citrus tristeza virus, an aphid‐transmitted closterovirus. The disease, one of whose symptoms is quick decline, has led to the death of millions of citrus trees all over the world. Photo by Florida Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Available under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License from Bugwood.org.
close

References

Aerni P (2006) Mobilizing science and technology for development: the case of the cassava biotechnology network (CBN). AgBioforum 9: 1–14.

Bass C, Denholm I, Williamson MS and Nauen R (2015) The global status of insect resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 121: 78–87.

Blanc S, Drucker M and Uzest M (2014) Localizing viruses in their insect vectors. Annual Review of Phytopathology 52: 403–425.

Canto T, Aranda MA and Fereres A (2009) Climate change effects on physiology and population processes of hosts and vectors that influence the spread of hemipteran‐borne plant viruses. Global Change Biology 15: 1884–1894.

Carroll TW (1983) Certification schemes against barley stripe mosaic. Seed Science and Technology 11: 1033–1042.

Dale JL (1987) Banana bunchy top: an economically important tropical plant virus disease. Advances in Virus Research 33: 301–325.

De Barro PJ, Liu SS, Boykin LM and Dinsdale AB (2011) Bemisia tabaci: a statement of species status. Annual Review of Entomology 56: 1–19.

Dodds JA, Riley K and Polek M (1996) Effect of Suppression by Tree Removal on the Incidence of Citrus Tristeza virus in California. Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the IOCV, pp 168–171.

Fauquet C and Fargette D (1990) African cassava mosaic virus: etiology, epidemiology and control. Plant Disease 74: 404–411.

Fargette D, Konaté G, Fauquet C, et al. (2006) Molecular ecology and emergence of tropical plant viruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 44: 235–260.

Gooding GV Jr (1975) Inactivation of tobacco mosaic virus on tomato seed with trisodium orthophosphate and sodium hypochlorite. Plant Disease Reporter 59: 770–772.

Harrison B, Zhou X, Otim‐Nape G, Liu Y and Robinson D (1997) Role of a novel type of double infection in the geminivirus‐induced epidemic of severe cassava mosaic in Uganda. Annals of Applied Biology 131: 437–448.

Hibino H (1996) Biology and epidemiology of rice viruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 34: 249–274.

Hogenhout SA, Ammar ED, Whitfield AE and Redinbaugh MG (2008) Insect vector interactions with persistently transmitted viruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 46: 327–359.

Irwin ME and Ruesink WG (1986) Vector intensity: a product of propensity and activity. In: MacLean GD, Garrett RG and Ruesink WG (eds) Plant Virus Epidemics: Monitoring, Modelling and Predicting Outbreaks, pp. 13–33. Sydney: Academic Press.

Jones RAC (2009) Plant virus emergence and evolution: origins, new encounter scenarios, factors driving emergence, effects of changing world conditions, and prospects for control. Virus Research 141: 113–130.

Jones RAC, Salam MU, Maling TJ, Diggle AJ and Thackray DJ (2010) Principles of predicting plant virus disease epidemics. Annual Review of Phytopathology 48: 179–203.

Kimble KA, Grogan RG, Greathead AS, Paulus AO and House JK (1975) Development, application and comparison of methods for indexing lettuce seed for mosaic virus in California. Plant Disease Reporter 59: 461–464.

Levy L (2006) Plum pox virus (PPV) in the United States of America. EPPO Bulletin 36: 217–218.

Morales F (2010) Distribution and dissemination of begomoviruses in Latin America and the Caribbean. In: Stansly PA and Naranjo SE (eds) Bemisia: Bionomics and Management of a Global Pest, pp. 283–318. Dordrecht: Springer.

Navarro L (1981) Citrus Shoot‐Tip Grafting In Vitro (STG) and Its Applications: A Review. Proceedings of the 4th International Citrus Congress, pp 452–456.

Navas‐Castillo J, Fiallo‐Olivé E and Sánchez‐Campos S (2011) Emerging virus diseases transmitted by whiteflies. Annual Review of Phytopathology 49: 219–248.

Panattoni A, Luvisi A and Triolo E (2013) Review. Elimination of viruses in plants: twenty years of progress. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 11: 173–188.

Reynolds R, Chapman JW and Harrington R (2006) The migration of insect vectors of plant and animal viruses. Advances in Virus Research 67: 453–517.

Robert Y (1987) Aphid vector monitoring in Europe. In: Harris KF (ed) Current Topics in Vector Research, vol. 3, pp. 81–129. New York: Springer.

Thresh JM (1981) The role of weeds and wild plants in the epidemiology of plant virus diseases. In: Thresh JM (ed) Pests, Pathogens and Vegetation, pp. 53–70. London: Pitman.

Thresh JM (1986) Plant virus disease forecasting. In: MacLean GD, Garrett RG and Ruesink WG (eds) Plant Virus Epidemics: Monitoring, Modelling and Predicting Outbreaks, pp. 359–386. Sydney: Academic Press.

Thresh JM (1987) The population dynamics of plant virus diseases. In: Wolfe MS and Caten CE (eds) Pathogens: Their Dynamics and Genetics, pp. 135–148. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Wang Q, Panis B, Engelmann F, Lambardi M and Valkonen JPT (2009) Cryotherapy of shoot tips: a technique for pathogen elimination to produce healthy planting materials and prepare healthy plant genetic resources for cryopreservation. Annals of Applied Biology 154: 351–363.

Zerbini FM, Briddon RW, Idris A, et al. (2017) ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Geminiviridae. Journal of General Virology 98: 131–133.

Further Reading

Duffus JE (1971) Role of weeds in the incidence of virus diseases. Annual Review of Phytopathology 9: 319–340.

Hull R (2013) Plant Virology, 5th edn. New York: Academic Press.

Jones RAC (2004) Using epidemiological information to develop effective integrated virus disease management strategies. Virus Research 100: 5–30.

Madden LV, Hughes G and Bosch F (2007) The Study of Plant Disease Epidemics. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society (APS Press).

Sylvester ES (1980) Circulative and propagative virus transmission by aphids. Annual Review of Phytopathology 25: 257–286.

Thresh JM (1978) The epidemiology of plant virus diseases. In: Scott PR and Bainbridge A (eds) Plant Disease Epidemiology, pp. 79–89. Oxford: Blackwell.

Thresh JM (1980) The origins and epidemiology of some important plant virus diseases. Applied Biology 5: 1–65.

Thresh JM (1988) Eradication as a virus disease control measure. In: Clifford BC and Lester E (eds) Control of Plant Diseases: Costs and Benefits, pp. 155–194. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Tomlinson JA (1987) Epidemiology and control of virus diseases of vegetables. Annals of Applied Biology 110: 661–681.

Zitter TA (1977) Epidemiology of aphid‐borne viruses. In: Harris KF and Maramorosch K (eds) Aphids as Virus Vectors, pp. 385–412. London: Academic Press.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Navas‐Castillo, Jesús, and Fiallo‐Olivé, Elvira(Oct 2017) Plant Virus Diseases: Epidemiology. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000759.pub2]