Virus Diseases of Grapevine

Abstract

There are 25 recognised virus and virus‐like diseases of grapevines (Vitis and Muscadinia spp.). Many have a clear‐cut detrimental effect on the vines, that is stunting, reduced vigour, malformation of the leaves and twigs, foliar discolourations ranging from reddening to chlorotic or bright yellow mottling, ringspots and line patterns. The productive life of the vineyards can be shortened and the quantity and quality of the crop badly affected. Prevailing disease agents are viruses transmitted by nematodes (nepoviruses and Strawberry latent ringspot virus), pseudococcid mealybugs and soft‐scale insects (closteroviruses and vitiviruses). Infected propagation materials (scions and rootstocks) are the major way for long‐distance dissemination of diseases, several of which have now a worldwide distribution and have entered areas where the grapevine industry is expanding. Control is based on preventive measures such as sanitary selection, sanitation and induction of resistance through conventional breeding or, to come in the future, genetic engineering.

Key Concepts:

  • Virus and virus‐like diseases are a major threat to the world's grapevine industry.

  • The world of grapevine‐infecting viruses is the most variegated among woody crops.

  • Prevailing viruses are soil‐borne and mealybug‐transmitted.

  • Spreading of diseases and their agents is mediated by infected propagative material and vectors.

  • Nursery productions have played, and still do, a major role in disease dissemination.

  • Disease control relies on preventive measures aimed at reducing vector populations and sources of inoculum.

  • Sanitary selection and sanitation are most efficient means for producing certified stocks.

Keywords: Vitis; Muscadinia; virus diseases; nepoviruses; closteroviruses; sanitary selection; sanitation

Figure 1.

Bright yellow discolouration of the foliage induced by a chromogenic strain of GFLV.

Figure 2.

Typical autumn symptoms in a leaf of a leafroll‐infected vine.

Figure 3.

Stem grooving induced by rugose wood.

close

References

Al Rawhanih M, Dave A, Anderson M et al. (2013) Association of a DNA virus with grapevines affected by Red blotch disease in California. Phytopathology 103: 1069–1076.

Almeida RPP, Deane KM, Bell WA et al. (2013) Ecology and management of grapevine leafroll disease. Frontiers in Microbiology 4: 159–171.

Baccarini P (1902) Roncet. Viticoltura Moderna 8: 241–248.

Bell VA, Bonfiglioli RGE, Walker JTS et al. (2009) Grapevine leafroll‐associated virus 3 persistence in Vitis vinifera remnant roots. Journal of Plant Pathology 91: 515–521.

Boscia D, Martelli GP, Savino V and Castellano MA (1991) Identification of the agent of grapevine fleck disease. Vitis 30: 97–105.

Boscia D, Minafra A and Martelli GP (1997) Filamentous viruses of the grapevine: putative trichoviruses and capilloviruses. In: Monette PL (ed.) Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants, pp. 19–28. Trivandrum: Research Signpost.

Bouquet A (1981) Resistance to grape fanleaf virus in muscadine grapes inoculated with Xiphinema index. Plant Disease 65: 791–793.

Cabaleiro C (2009) Current advances in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease. Extended Abstracts, 16th Meeting of ICGV, Dijion, France, pp. 264–268.

Cabaleiro C and Segura A (1997) Some characteristics of the transmission of Grapevine leafroll‐associated virus 3 (GLRaV‐3) by Planococcus citri Risso. European Journal of Plant Pathology 10: 373–378.

Cadman CH, Dias HF and Harrison BD (1960) Sap‐transmissible viruses associated with diseases of grape vines in Europe and North America. Nature 187: 577–579.

Castellano MA and Martelli GP (1984) Ultrastructure and nature of vesiculated bodies associated with isometric virus‐like particles in diseased grapevines. Journal of Ultrastructure Research 89: 56–64.

Engelbrect DJ and Kasdorf GGF (1990) Field spread of corky bark, fleck, leafroll and Shiraz decline diseases and associated viruses in South African grapevines. Phytophylactica 22: 347–354.

Flores R, Duran‐Vila N, Pallas V and Semancik JS (1985) Detection of viroid and viroid‐like RNAs from grapevine. Journal of General Virology 66: 2095–2102.

Fortusini A, Scattini G, Cinquanta S and Prati S (1996) Diffusione naturale del virus 1 (GLRaV‐1) e del virus 3 (GLRaV‐3) dell'accartocciamento fogliare e del virus della maculatura infettiva o “fleck” (GFkV) della vite. Informatore Fitopatologico 46(12): 39–43.

Fuchs M, Cambra M, Capote N et al. (2007) Safety assessment of transgenic plums and grapevines expressing viral coat protein genes: new insights into real environmental impact of perennial plant engineered for virus resistance. Journal of Plant Pathology 89: 5–12.

Gugerli P (2009) 25 years of serological identification of grapevine leafroll‐associated viruses: antiserum and monoclonal antibodies to GLRaV‐1 to ‐9. Extended Abstracts, 16th Meeting of ICGV, Dijion, France, pp. 24–28.

Hemmer C, Vigne E, Goldschmidt V et al. (2009) Transgenic rootstocks expressing GFLV coat protein gene in a three year field trial: resistance assessment, impact on GFLV diversity and exchange between rootstocks and scions. Extended Abstracts, 16th Meeting of ICGV, Dijion, France, pp. 228–229.

Hewitt WB (1954) Some virus and virus‐like diseases of grapevines. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture 43: 47–64.

Hewitt WB, Raski DJ and Goheen AC (1958) Nematode vector of soil‐borne fanleaf virus of grapevines. Phytopathology 48: 586–595.

Krake LR (1993) Characterization of leafroll disease by symptomatology. Australian and New Zealand Wine Industry Journal 8: 40–44.

Krenz B, Thompson JR, Fuchs M and Perry KL (2012). Complete genome sequence of a new circular DNA virus from grapevine. Journal of Virology 86: 7715.

Krüger K and Doulgas N (2009) Transmission of Grapevine leafroll‐associated virus 3 (GLRaV‐3) by three soft scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and notes on their developmental biology on grapevine. Extended Abstracts, 16th Meeting of ICGV, Dijion, France, pp. 281–282.

La Notte P, Buzkan N, Choeiri E, Minafra A and Martelli GP (1997) Acquisition and transmission of Grapevine virus A by the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus. Journal of Plant Pathology 79: 79–85.

Laimer M, Lemaire O, Herrbach E et al. (2009) Resistance to viruses, phytoplasmas and their vectors in the grapevine in Europe: a review. Journal of Plant Pathology 91: 7–23.

Mahfoudhi N, Digiaro M and Dhouibi MH (2009) Transmission of grapevine leafroll viruses by Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Ceroplastes rusci (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Plant Disease 93: 999–1002.

Maliogka VA, Dovas CI and Katis NI (2008) Evolutionary relationships of virus species belonging to a distinct lineage within the Ampelovirus genus. Virus Research 135: 125–135.

Maliogka VA, Martelli GP, Fuchs M and Katis NI (in press) Control of viruses infecting grapevines. Advances in Virus Research.

Mannini F (2003) Virus elimination in grapevine and crop performance. Extended Abstracts, 14th Meeting of ICGV, Locorotondo, Italy, pp. 234–239.

Martelli GP (1978) Nematode‐borne viruses of grapevine, their epidemiology and control. Nematologia Mediterranea 6: 1–27.

Martelli GP (ed.) (1993) Graft‐transmissible Diseases of Grapevines. Handbook for Detection and Diagnosis. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Publication Division.

Martelli GP (2014) Directory of Virus and Virus‐like Diseases of the Grapevine and their Agents. Journal of Pant Pathology 96 (suppl. 1): 1–136.

Martelli GP, Abou Ghanem‐Sabanadzovic N, Agranovsky AA et al. (2012) Taxonomic revision of the family Closteroviridae with special reference to the grapevine leafroll‐associated members of the genus Ampelovirus and the putative species unassigned to the family. Journal of Plant Pathology 94: 7–19.

Martelli GP and Jelkmann W (1998) Foveavirus, a new plant virus genus. Archives of Virology 143: 1245–1249.

Martelli GP and Piro G (1975) Virus diseases of the grapevine in a Sicilian herbarium of the past century. Vitis 13: 329–335.

Martelli GP, Prota U, Quacquarelli A and Refatti E (1994) Il punto sulla lotta ai virus e la certificazione della vite. In: Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche 1994, vol. 2, pp. 267–280. Bologna: Cooperativa Libraria Universitaria Editrice.

Martelli GP, Saldarelli P and Boscia D (1997) Filamentous viruses of the grapevine: closteroviruses. In: Monette PL (ed.) Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants, pp. 1–9. Trivandrum: Research Signpost.

Martelli GP and Taylor CE (1989) Distribution of viruses and their nematode vectors. Advances in Disease Vector Research 6: 151–189.

Martelli GP and Walter B (1998) Virus certification of grapevines. In: Hadidi A, Kheterpal RK and Koganezawa H (eds) Plant Virus Disease Control, pp. 261–276. St. Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society Press.

Nakaune R, Inouie K, Nasu H et al. (2008) Identification and characterization of a new vitivirus from grapevines. Archives of Virology 153: 1827–1832.

Pietersen G, Spreeth N, Oosthuzen T et al. (2009) A case study of control of grapevine leaf roll disease spread on Vergelegen Wine Estate, South Africa, 2002–2008. Extended Abstracts, 16th Meeting of ICGV, Dijion, France, pp. 230–231.

Scheu G (1935) Mein Winzerbuch. Berlin: Reichnährstand Verlag.

Taylor CE and Brown DJF (1997) Nematode Vectors of Plant Viruses. Wallingford, CT: CAB International.

Vigne E, Komar V and Fuchs M (2004) Field safety assessment of recombination in transgenic grapevines expressing the coat protein gene of Grapevine fanleaf virus. Transgenic Research 13: 165–179.

Walker MA, Meredith CP and Goheen AC (1985) Sources of resistance to Grapevine Fanleaf Virus (GFV) in Vitis species. Vitis 24: 218–228.

Walker MA, Wolpert JA, Vilas EP, Goheen AC and Lider LA (1989) Resistant rootstocks may control fanleaf degeneration of grapevines. California Agriculture 43(2): 13–14.

Walter B and Martelli GP (1997) Clonal and sanitary selection of the grapevine. In: Walter B (ed.) Sanitary Selection of the Grapevine. Protocols for the Detection of Viruses and Virus‐like Diseases. Les Colloques, vol. 86, pp. 43–95. Paris: INRA Editions.

Wu Q, Wang Y, Cao M et al. (2012) Homology‐independent discovery of replicating pathogenic circular RNAs by deep sequencing and a new computational algorithm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109: 3938–3943.

Zhang Y, Singh K, Kaur R and Qiu W (2011) Association with a novel DNA virus with the grapevine vein‐clearing and vine decline syndrome. Phytopathology 101: 1081–1090.

Further Reading

Boudon‐Padieu E, Ridé M and Walter B (2000) Maladies à Virus, Bactéries et Phytoplasmes de la Vigne. Bordeaux: Editions Féret.

Bovey R, Gärtel W, Hewitt WB, Martelli GP and Vuittenez A (1980) Virus and Virus‐like Diseases of Grapevines. Lausanne: Editions Payot.

Frison EA and Ikin R (1991) FAO/IBPGR Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Grapevine Germplasm. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome/International Board for Plant Genetic Resources.

Goheen AC (1977) Virus and viruslike diseases of grapes. HortScience 12: 465–469.

Hadidi A, Flores R, Randles JW and Semancik JS (2003) Viroids. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Krake LR, Scott S, Rezaian MA and Taylor RH (1999) Graft‐transmitted Disease of Grapevines. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Martelli GP, Adams MJ, Kreuze JF and Dolja VV (2007) Family Flexiviridae: a case study of viron and genome plasticity. Annual Review of Phytopathology 45: 73–100.

Martelli GP, Savino V and Digiaro M (1996) Virus Floematici e Malattie della Vite. Bari: Tecnomack.

Pearson RG and Goheen AC (1988) Compendium of Grape Diseases. St. Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society Press.

Uyemoto JK, Martelli GP, Woodham RC, Goheen AC and Dias HF (1978) Grapevine (Vitis) Virus and Virus‐like Diseases. In: Barnett OW and Tolin SA (eds) Plant Virus Slide Series, Set 1. Clemson, SC: Clemson University.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Martelli, Giovanni P(Nov 2014) Virus Diseases of Grapevine. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000766.pub3]