Bacteriophages in Industry

Abstract

Traditionally, bacteriophages (phages) have been regarded as a nuisance in industrial processes that rely on bacterial fermentation. In particular, the dairy industry has struggled with phage‐induced fermentation failure in the production of fermented food products. Phages attack the bacteria and slow or stop the fermentation process, resulting in reduced product quality and considerable financial loss. Significant effort has been dedicated by the dairy industry to combating phage infection. However, phage research has provided the molecular insight and tools required to exploit biological systems. This ability has provided the platform for the current expansion in biotechnology‐based industries.

Keywords: bacteriophage; biotechnology; recombinant DNA; fermentation; resistance mechanisms

Figure 1.

Molecular tools and enzymes derived from the study of bacteriophage (see text for details). (a) Phage DNA is injected from the phage particle and either integrates in the chromosome (lysogeny) or enters the lytic cycle. (b) In the lytic cycle, phage DNA replicates as either a linear molecule or via theta/rolling circle replication (RCR) as a circular form. (c) Phage proteins redirect the host's cellular machinery to produce the building blocks of the virion. (d) Phage DNA is packaged in the capsid of the phage particle and cell lysis is effected to release progeny phage.

Figure 2.

Schematic representation of a bacteriophage particle. The phage DNA is encapsulated in the capsid before the release of progeny phage from the cell by DNA‐packaging mechanisms. Insertion of foreign DNA into the gene encoding a capsid protein results in expression of the introduced peptide or protein on the surface of the phage.

Figure 3.

Naturally occurring and recombinant phage defence mechanisms.

close

References

Barrangou R, Fremaux C, Deveau H et al. (2007) CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes. Science 315: 1709–1712.

Botstein D (1980) A theory of modular evolution for bacteriophages. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 354: 484–491.

Bruttin A, Desiere F, d'Amico N et al. (1997) Molecular ecology of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage infections in a cheese factory. Applied Environmental Microbiology 241(2): 345–356.

Capra ML, Quiberoni A, Ackermann HW, Moineau S and Reinheimer JA (2006) Isolation and characterization of a new virulent phage (MLC‐A) of Lactobacillus paracasei. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 2414–2423.

Coffey A and Ross RP (2002) Bacteriophage‐resistance systems in dairy starter strains: molecular analysis to application. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 82: 303–321.

Daly C, Fitzgerald GF and Davis R (1996) Biotechnology of the lactic acid bacteria with special reference to bacteriophage resistance. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 70: 99–110.

Davis C, Silveira NF and Fleet GH (1985) Occurrence and properties of bacteriophages of Leuconostoc oenos in Australian wines. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 50(4): 872–876.

Desiere F, Lucchini S and Brussow H (1998) Evolution of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage genomes by modular exchanges followed by point mutations and small deletions and insertions. Virology 241(2): 345–356.

Durmaz E and Klaenhammer TR (2000) Genetic analysis of chromosomal regions of Lactococcus lactis acquired by recombinant lytic phages. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 895–903.

Durmaz E and Klaenhammer TR (2007) Abortive phage resistance mechanism AbiZ speeds the lysis clock to cause premature lysis of phage‐infected Lactococcus lactis. Journal of Bacteriology 189: 1417–1425.

Gindreau E and Lonvaud‐Funel A (1999) Molecular analysis of the region encoding the lytic system from Oenococcus oeni temperate bacteriophage phi 10MC. FEMS Microbiological Letters 171(2): 231–238.

Hill C, Miller LA and Klaenhammer TR (1990) Cloning, expression and sequence determination of a bacteriophage fragment encoding bacteriophage resistance in Lactococcus lactis. Journal of Bacteriology 172: 6419–6426.

Hoogenboom HR (2005) Selecting and screening recombinant antibody libraries. Nature Biotechnology 23: 1105–1116.

Jarvis AW, Fitzgerald GF, Mata M et al. (1991) Species and type phages of lactococcal bacteriophages. Intervirology 32: 2–9.

Lawrence RC and Pearce LE (1972) Cheese starters under control. Dairy Industries International 37: 73.

Moineau S (1999) Applications of phage resistance in lactic acid bacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 76: 377–382.

Ogata S (1980) Bacteriophage contamination of industrial processes. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 22(suppl. 1): 177–193.

Sanders ME (1987) Bacteriophage of industrial importance. In: Goyal SM, Gerba CP and Bitton G (eds) Phage Ecology, pp. 211–244. New York: Wiley.

Sauer B (1998) Inducible gene targeting in mice using the Cre/lox system. Methods 14: 381–391.

Schmidt E and Strupp DJ (2006) Crystal gazing: biotech's financial outlook. Nature Biotechnology 24: 261.

Sellmar S, Sievers M and Teuber M (1992) Morphology, virulence and epidemiology of bacteriophage particles isolated from industrial vinegar fermentations. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 15: 610–616.

Shimizu‐Kadota M and Tsuchida N (1984) Physical mapping of the virion and the prophage DNAs of a temperate Lactobacillus phage phi FSW. Journal of General Microbiology 130(Pt 2): 423–430.

Sturino JM and Klaenhammer TR (2006) Engineered bacteriophage‐defence systems in bioprocessing. Nature Reviews. Microbiology 4: 395–404.

Sturino JM and Klaenhammer A (2004) Antisense RNA targeting of primase interferes with bacteriophage replication in Streptococcus thermophilus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 1735–1743.

Van de Guchte M, Penaud S, Grimaldi C et al. (2006) The complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus bulgaricus reveals extensive and ongoing reductive evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103: 9274–9279.

Further Reading

Cairns J, Stent GS and Watson JD (1992) Phages and the Origins of Molecular Biology. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press.

Demain AL and Davies JE (1999) Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2nd edn. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology Press.

Glick BR and Pasternak JJ (1994) Molecular Biology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology Press.

Marks T and Sharp R (2000) Bacteriophages and biotechnology: a review. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 75: 6–17.

Santi E, Capone S, Mennuni C et al. (2000) Bacteriophage lambda display of complex cDNA libraries: a new approach to functional genomics. Journal of Molecular Biology 296: 497–508.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Callanan, Michael J, and Klaenhammer, Todd R(Sep 2008) Bacteriophages in Industry. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000776.pub2]