Membrane‐Containing Bacteriophages

Abstract

Viruses exhibit vast diversity in their form and function and are by far the most numerous (estimates 1030–1032) organisms on earth. The largest group among viruses is bacteriophages (phages), the viruses that infect bacteria, with over 6000 identified members. Vast majority of the phages are composed of protein and nucleic acid with a head–tail morphology. Polyhedral, filamentous or pleomorphic phages comprise only less than 4% of the described bacteriophages, and a minority of these has lipid constituents in addition to nucleic acid and protein. These membrane‐containing bacteriophages form a diverse group of viruses and the major virus morphotypes are represented by the members of the virus families , and . The lipids as a bilayer can either form the outermost layer of the virion or be enclosed within the virus capsid. In both cases, the viral membranes are involved in cell entry processes.

Key Concepts

  • Membrane‐containing bacteriophages are a diverse group of bacterial viruses.
  • Bacteriophages with a membrane are usually sensitive to organic solvents and detergents.
  • Lipids in the viral membrane have a bilayer structure.
  • The virion proteins are all virus specific, but lipids are derived from host cytoplasmic membrane.
  • During virus morphogenesis, the virus‐specific membrane proteins exclude host proteins during formation of the viral membrane.
  • The viral protein‐rich membranes have an essential role during entry mediating the translocation of the genome across the bacterial cell envelopes.

Keywords: bacterial virus; lipid‐containing bacteriophage; membrane‐containing bacteriophage; virus evolution; life cycle

Figure 1. Morphotypes of the membrane‐containing bacteriophages. The type species of the membrane‐containing bacteriophage families and unassigned phages P23‐77, icosahedral phage 1 (SSIP‐1) and L172 are drawn to scale (Bar is 100 nm). Protein (blue), lipid bilayer (orange), DNA (purple) and RNA (red) are coloured. Double‐stranded and single‐stranded genomes are indicated by double and single lines, respectively.
Figure 2. Corticovirus PM2. A schematic presentation of the virion architecture and functions of the proteins.
Figure 3. Tectivirus PRD1. (Upper panel) A schematic presentation of the PRD1 virion architecture and functions of the proteins. (Lower panel) Schematic presentation of the PRD1 life cycle. (A) The phage adsorbs onto the host surface. (B) The membrane transforms to the tubular form followed by DNA injection into the cytoplasm. (C and D) After DNA delivery, protein‐primed genome replication, transcription and translation take place. (E and F) During translation, the capsid proteins accumulate into the cytosol, whereas the viral membrane‐associated proteins are addressed to the cytoplasmic membrane. The cellular chaperone GroEL/GroES is necessary for the folding of several phage proteins. (G) Upon procapsid assembly, the virus‐specific patch is pinched off from the host cytoplasmic membrane and the soluble capsid proteins interact with the virus‐specific membrane. (H) The procapsid consisting of capsid enclosing the empty membrane is formed. (I) The genome is packaged into procapsid by the packaging ATPase P9 through a unique vertex. (J) The mature virions are released via lysis.
Figure 4. Cystovirus φ6. (a) A schematic presentation of the φ6 virion architecture and functions of the proteins. (b) Schematic presentation of the φ6 life cycle. (A) The phage adsorbs to the host pilus. (B) Fusion between viral envelope and host outer membrane. (C) Peptidoglycan digestion. (D and E) Penetration of plasma membrane. (F) Early transcription. (G and H) Assembly of empty polymerase complexes. (I) Sequential packaging of the three single‐stranded genomic precursor s, m and l into the empty polymerase complexes. (J and K) Synthesis of complementary RNA strands in the polymerase complex. (L) Late transcription. (M) Synthesis and assembly of nucleocapsid shell protein P8; synthesis of viral membrane proteins on the plasma membrane. (N) Intracellular translocation of envelopes onto the nucleocapsids; assembly of P3 spikes on the enveloped virions. (O) Release of mature virions by virus‐induced host cell lysis. Reproduced with permission from Poranen and Bamford (2011) © Springer.
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Further Reading

Abrescia NGA, Grimes JM, Fry EE, et al. (2010) What does it take to make a virus: the concept of the viral “self”. In: Stockley PG and Twarock R, (eds). Emerging Topics in Physical Virology, pp. 35–38. London: Imperial Collage Press.

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Bamford JKH and Bamford DH (2006) Lipid‐containing bacteriophage PM2, the type organism of Corticoviridae. In: Calendar R, (ed). The Bacteriophages, pp. 171–174. New York: Oxford University Press.

Grahn AM, Butcher SJ, Bamford JKH and Bamford DH (2006) PRD1: dissecting the genome, structure, and entry. In: Calendar R, (ed). The Bacteriophages, pp. 161–170. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Poranen MM, Tuma R and Bamford DH (2005) Assembly of double‐stranded RNA bacteriophages. Advances in Virus Research 64: 15–43.

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Poranen, Minna M, Bamford, Dennis H, and Oksanen, Hanna M(Apr 2015) Membrane‐Containing Bacteriophages. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000779.pub3]