Experimental Organisms Used in Genetics


Most model genetic systems share important characteristics that make them amenable to growth and analysis in the laboratory. These include genetic mapping by recombination, tests for dominance and complementation. Development of a system for transformation and obtaining the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome are also very important.

Keywords: gene mapping; dominance; recombination; complementation; transformation; tetrad analysis; polytene chromosomes

Figure 1.

Diagram depicting alternative lytic and lysogenic paths for lambda virus following its infecting an E. coli host cell.

Figure 2.

Life cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae depicting diploid and haploid vegetative cycles. Meiosis results in a tetrad of haploid ascospores of two mating types, a and alpha.

Figure 3.

Diagram depicting one method for creating mosaic transgenic mice using transformed embryonic stem cells (ES cells) injected into a host blastocyst, which is placed in a surrogate mother for development.


Further Reading

Ashburner M (1989) Drosophila: A Laboratory Handbook. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Press.

Darnell J, Lodish H and Baltimore D (1990) Molecular Cell Biology, 2nd edn. New York: WH Freeman.

Guthrie C and Fink GR (eds) (1991) Methods in Enzymology: Guide to Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Lambie E and Kimble J (1991) Genetic control of cell interactions in nematode development. Annual Review of Genetics 25: 411–436.

Meyerowitz EM and Somerville CR (1994) Arabidopsis. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

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Judd, Burke H(Apr 2001) Experimental Organisms Used in Genetics. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000814]