Bacterial Transcription Regulation

Abstract

Escherichia coli and possibly all other bacteria regulate transcription predominantly at the stage of initiation by repressors and/or activators.

Keywords: activation; activator; local concentration; β‐galactosidase; Lac permease; Escherichia coli; cyclic AMP; CAP protein; FNR protein; ONPG; IPTG; operator; repressor; inducer

Figure 1.

The lac operator.

Figure 2.

Model of Lac repressor. (a) The lac system. (b) (1) The lac promoter region. (2) Unrepressed transcription. (3) Repression by tetrameric Lac repressor binding to O1 and O3. The catabolite repressor protein (CAP) site and the PI promoter are depicted as being unoccupied. There is no evidence for or against this. (4) Repression by tetrameric Lac repressor binding to O1 and O2. It is likely but not explicitly demonstrated that the CAP and RNA polymerase are bound to their sites. From Oehler S, Amouyal M, Kolkhof P, Wilcken‐Bergmann Bv and Müller‐Hill B (1994) Quality and position of the three lac operators of E. coli define efficiency of repression. EMBO Journal13: 3348–3355.

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References

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Further Reading

Lwoff A and Ullmann A (eds) (1978) Selected Papers in Molecular Biology by Jacques Monod. London: Academic Press.

Miller JH and Reznikoff WS (eds) (1978) The Operon. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Müller‐Hill B (1998) The lac Operon. A Short History of a Genetic Paradigm. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Ptashne M (1987) A Genetic Switch. Phage λ and Higher Organisms. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific.

Ptashne M and Gann A (2002) Genes & Signals. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Steitz TA (1993) Structural Studies of Protein–Nucleic Acid Interaction. The Source of Sequence‐Specific Binding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wagner R (2000) Transcription Regulation in Prokaryotes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Müller‐Hill, Benno(Mar 2004) Bacterial Transcription Regulation. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0003828]