Substrate Binding to Enzymes


Binding of a substrate to an enzyme is the first step of the interaction between substrate (ligand) and enzyme molecules that leads to the formation of an intermediate substrate–enzyme complex. The formation process is controlled mainly by diffusion and requires a structural complementarity between the enzyme and ligand.

Keywords: substrate–enzyme complex; rate constants; dissociation constant; allosteric interactions; steady state; Michaelis constant; Hill equation; Adair equation; binding isotherm; weak bonds; hydrophobic interactions

Figure 1.

Binding isotherms and linearized forms. (a) Direct plot of eqn 17 (Kd = 1, E0 = 1) for various values of the Hill coefficient η indicated on each curve. The same curves in the Scatchard plot (eqn 21), double reciprocal plot (eqn 21), and Scott plot (eqn 21) are shown in (b), (c) and (d), respectively.

Figure 2.

Binding isotherms of allosteric enzymes (according to Monod et al., ). (a) Effect of changing ‘microscopic’ constants in a homotropic system (eqn 19). Values of κ are indicated on each curve. (b) Heterotropic system (eqn 20). Heavy curve: homotropic system corresponding to the heavy curve in panel (a). Finely‐dashed curves show the effect of allosteric activators, and dashed curves those of allosteric inhibitors. For curves in both panels, KR = 103, n = 4.

Figure 3.

Binding isotherm of the hyperbolic type (eqs. 2 and 5): Error limits (dashed lines) of linearized binding data (according to Deranleau, ). (a) Semilogarithmic plot; (b) Lineweaver–Burk plot; (c) Scott plot. Values of intercepts (red arrows) and slopes in plots (b) and (c) are indicated.



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Further Reading

Kolev D (1998) Enzymology. London: World Scientific.

Price NC and Stevens L (1989) Fundamentals of Enzymology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Segel IH (1993) Enzyme Kinetics. Behavior and Analysis of Rapid Equilibrium and Steady‐State Enzyme Systems. New York: Wiley.

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Pliška, Vladimir K(Apr 2001) Substrate Binding to Enzymes. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000862]