Kallikrein–Kinin System

Abstract

Two similar proteolytic cascades lead to release of bradykinin and lysbradykinin in tissues; these peptides act as autocoids, the first favouring blood clotting and endothelial protection, the second by initiating and maintaining tissue reactions to noxious stimuli. Kinin biological actions are mediated by two different receptor types, the constitutive B2 which promotes initial reactions and the inducible B1 which may later maintain mechanisms of defence and repair.

Keywords: kallikreins; kinins; B1 and B2 receptors

Figure 1.

Biosynthesis of kinins within the blood, tissues and other cellular compartments. Abbreviations: HF: Hageman factor; HFa: activated Hageman factor; HMWK: high‐molecular weight kininogen; LMWK: low‐molecular weight kininogen; CPM and CPN: carboxypeptidases M and N; AmM: aminopeptidase M.

Figure 2.

Metabolism of kallidin and derivatives by multiple peptidases. Putative sites of cleavage are indicated by arrows.

close

References

Bhoola KD, Figueroa CD and Worthy K (1992) Bioregulation of kinins: kallikreins, kininogens and kininases. Pharmacological Reviews 44: 1–80.

Colman RW and Schmaier AH (1997) Contact system: a vascular biology modulator with anticoagulant, profibrinolytic, antiadhesive, and proinflammatory attributes. Blood 90: 3819–3843.

Farmer SG (ed.) (1997) The Kinin System. London: Academic Press.

Erdos EG and Skidgel RA (1997) Metabolism of bradykinin by peptidases in health and diseases. In: Farmer SG (ed.) The Kinin System, pp. 111–141. London: Academic Press.

Marceau F, Hess JF and Bachvarov DR (1998) The B1 receptors for kinins. Pharmacological Reviews 50: 357–386.

Regoli D and Barabé J (1980) Pharmacology of bradykinin and related kinins. Pharmacological Reviews 32: 1–46.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Regoli, Domenico, Calo, Girolamo, and Gobeil, Fernand(Apr 2001) Kallikrein–Kinin System. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000905]