Kallikrein–Kinin System


Two similar proteolytic cascades lead to release of bradykinin and lysbradykinin in tissues; these peptides act as autocoids, the first favouring blood clotting and endothelial protection, the second by initiating and maintaining tissue reactions to noxious stimuli. Kinin biological actions are mediated by two different receptor types, the constitutive B2 which promotes initial reactions and the inducible B1 which may later maintain mechanisms of defence and repair.

Keywords: kallikreins; kinins; B1 and B2 receptors

Figure 1.

Biosynthesis of kinins within the blood, tissues and other cellular compartments. Abbreviations: HF: Hageman factor; HFa: activated Hageman factor; HMWK: high‐molecular weight kininogen; LMWK: low‐molecular weight kininogen; CPM and CPN: carboxypeptidases M and N; AmM: aminopeptidase M.

Figure 2.

Metabolism of kallidin and derivatives by multiple peptidases. Putative sites of cleavage are indicated by arrows.



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Regoli, Domenico, Calo, Girolamo, and Gobeil, Fernand(Apr 2001) Kallikrein–Kinin System. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0000905]