Molecular Mimicry

Abstract

Molecular mimicry is structural, functional or immunological similarities shared between macromolecules found on infectious pathogens and in host tissues. Molecular mimicry plays an important role in immune responses to infection and in autoimmune diseases. Infection may induce autoimmune responses which attack and destroy body tissues or organs. Normally, the body is tolerant to self‐antigens which are present in individual tissues. In autoimmune disease, tolerance is abrogated to self‐antigens, and tissues or organs are destroyed by the immune system. Molecular mimicry of a self‐antigen by an infectious pathogen, such as bacteria and viruses, may trigger autoimmune disease due to a crossreactive immune response against the infection. Crossreactive antigen–antibody and T cell–antigen reactions are used to identify the mimicking macromolecules on the pathogen and in tissues or organs. These parameters define the concept of molecular mimicry.

Key Concepts:

  • There are three types of mimicry.

    • The first type of molecular mimicry is identical amino acid sequences present in different protein molecules.

    • The second type of molecular mimicry is due to structural similarities rather than amino acid sequence identities in the mimicking chemical structures.

    • The third type of molecular mimicry is the recognition of completely dissimilar chemical structures on separate molecules by a single antibody.

  • Immunological mimicry between dissimilar epitopes on chemically different molecules has changed the concept that an antibody molecule must recognize only a single antigenic epitope.

  • Although molecular mimicry was once thought by immunologists to be a ‘phenomenon’ or ‘nonspecific immune reaction’, mimicry is now considered to be a part of the normal immune system and plays an important role in protection against pathogens.

  • Microbial infections may activate the immune system and lead to a loss of immune tolerance which could allow expansion of high avidity crossreactive B‐ or T‐cell clones which through molecular mimicry may lead to autoimmune disease.

  • Mimicry has been shown to lead to the induction of autoantibodies which alter signalling in cells.

Keywords: molecular mimicry; immunology; infection; antibodies; autoimmunity; vaccines

Figure 1.

Anti‐idiotype (antibody 2) mimicks the bacterial and host antigen and promotes the further development of autoantibody responses.

close

References

Agadjanyan M, Luo P, Westerink MAJ et al. (1997) Peptide mimicry of carbohydrate epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus. Nature Biotechnology 15: 547–551.

Annunziato F, Cosmi L, Santarlasci V et al. (2007) Phenotypic and functional features of human Th17 cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine 204(8): 1849–1861.

Antone SM, Adderson EE, Mertens NMJ and Cunningham MW (1997) Molecular analysis of V gene sequences encoding cytotoxic anti‐streptococcal/anti‐myosin monoclonal antibody 36.2.2 that recognizes the heart cell surface protein laminin. Journal of Immunology 159: 5422–5430.

Arbuckle MR, McClain MT, Rubertone MV et al. (2003) Development of autoantibodies before the clinical onset of systemic lupus erythematosus. New England Journal of Medicine 349(16): 1526–1533.

Barnaba V and Sinigaglia F (1997) Molecular mimicry and T cell‐mediated autoimmune disease. Journal of Experimental Medicine 185: 1529–1531.

Bettelli E, Carrier Y, Gao W et al. (2006) Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells. Nature 441: 235–238.

Brinster C and Shevach EM (2005) Bone marrow‐derived dendritic cells reverse the anergic state of CD4+CD25+ T cells without reversing their suppressive function. Journal of Immunology 175(11): 7332–7340.

Chen PP, Liu M, Sinha S and Carson DA (1988) A 16/6 idiotype‐positive anti‐DNA antibody is encoded by a conserved VH gene with no somatic mutation. Arthritis and Rheumatism 31: 1429.

Cohen IR (1991) Autoimmunity to chaperonins in the pathogenesis of arthritis and diabetes. Annual Review of Immunology 9: 567–589.

Cohen IR and Young DB (1991) Autoimmunity, microbial immunity, and the immunological homunculus. Immunology Today 12: 105–110.

Croxford JL, Anger HA and Miller SD (2005) Viral delivery of an epitope from Haemophilus influenzae induces central nervous system autoimmune disease by molecular mimicry. Journal of Immunology 174(2): 907–917.

Cunningham MW (2000) Pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13: 470–511.

Cunningham MW, Antone SM, Gulizia JM et al. (1992) Cytotoxic and viral neutralizing antibodies crossreact with streptococcal M protein, enteroviruses, and human cardiac myosin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 89: 1320–1324.

Cunningham MW, Antone SM, Smart M, Liu R and Kosanke S (1997) Molecular analysis of human cardiac myosin‐cross‐reactive B‐ and T‐cell epitopes of the group A streptococcal M5 protein. Infection and Immunity 65: 3913–3923.

Cunningham MW and Swerlick RA (1986) Polyspecificity of antistreptococcal murine monoclonal antibodies and their implications in autoimmunity. Journal of Experimental Medicine 164(4): 998–1012.

Datta SK and Gavalchin J (1986) Origins of pathogenic anti‐DNA idiotypes in the NZB X SWR model of lupus nephritis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 475: 47–58.

Diamond B, Katz JB, Paul E et al. (1992) The role of somatic mutation in the pathogenic anti‐DNA response. Annual Review of Immunology 10: 731.

Diamond B and Scharff M (1984) Somatic mutation of the T15 heavy chain gives rise to an antibody with autoantibody specificity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 81: 5841–5844.

DiPaolo RJ, Glass DD, Bijwaard KE and Shevach EM (2005) CD4+CD25+ T cells prevent the development of organ‐specific autoimmune disease by inhibiting the differentiation of autoreactive effector T cells. Journal of Immunology 175(11): 7135–7142.

Dwyer DS (1986) Idiotypic network connectivity and apossible cause of myasthenia gravis. Journal of Experimental Medicine 164: 1310–1318.

van Eden W, Wendling U, Paul L et al. (2000) Arthritis protective regulatory potential of self‐heat shock protein cross‐reactive T cells. Cell Stress Chaperones 5(5): 452–457.

Ellis NMJ, Li Y, Hildebrand W, Fischetti VA and Cunningham MW (2005) T cell mimicry and epitope specificity of crossreactive T cell clones from rheumatic heart disease. Journal of Immunology 175: 5448–5456.

Fae KC, da Silva DD, Oshiro SE et al. (2006) Mimicry in recognition of cardiac myosin peptides by heart‐intralesional T cell clones from rheumatic heart disease. Journal of Immunology 176(9): 5662–5670.

Fielder M, Pirt SJ, Tarpey I et al. (1995) Molecular mimicry and ankylosing spondylitis: possible role of a novel sequence in pullulanase of Klebsiella. FEBS Letters 369: 243–248.

Fischetti VA (1989) Streptococcal M protein: molecular design and biological behavior. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2(3): 285–314.

Fitch F, McKisic M, Lancki D and Gajewski T (1993) Differential regulation of T lymphocyte subsets. Annual Review of Immunology 11: 29–48.

Fujinami RS, von Herrath MG, Christen U and Whitton JL (2006) Molecular mimicry, bystander activation, or viral persistence: infections and autoimmune disease. Clinical Microbiological Review 19(1): 80–94.

Fujinami RS and Oldstone MBA (1985) Amino acid homology between the encephalitogenic site of myelin basic protein and virus: mechanism of autoimmunity. Science 230: 1043–1045.

Galvin JE, Hemric ME, Ward K and Cunningham MW (2000) Cytotoxic monoclonal antibody from rheumatic carditis reacts with human endothelium: implications in rheumatic heart disease. Journal of Clinical Investigation 106: 217–224.

Garcia KC, Degano M, Pease L et al. (1998) Structural basis of plasticity in T cell receptor recognition of a self peptide‐MHC antigen. Science 279: 1166–1172.

Gauntt C, Arizpe H, Higdon A et al. (1995) Molecular mimicry, anti‐coxsackievirus B2 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and myocarditis. Journal of Immunology 154: 2983–2995.

Gaynor B, Putterman C, Valadon P et al. (1997) Peptide inhibition of glomerular deposition of an anti‐DNA antibody. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94(5): 1955–1960.

Goodyear CS, O'Hanlon GM, Plomp JJ et al. (1999) Monoclonal antibodies raised against Guillain–Barre syndrome‐associated Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides react with neuronal gangliosides and paralyze muscle‐nerve preparations. Journal of Clinical Investigation 104(6): 697–708.

Habich C and Burkart V (2007) Heat shock protein 60: regulatory role on innate immune cells. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 64(6): 742–751.

Harrington LE, Mangan PR and Weaver CT (2006) Expanding the effector CD4 T‐cell repertoire: the Th17 lineage. Current Opinion in Immunology 18(3): 349–356.

Hartung HP, Willison HJ and Kieseier BC (2002) Acute immunoinflammatory neuropathy: update on Guillain–Barre syndrome. Current Opinion in Neurology 15(5): 571–577.

Hemmer B, Fleckenstein BT, Vergelli M et al. (1997) Identification of high potency microbial and self ligands for a human autoreactive class II‐restricted T cell clone. Journal of Experimental Medicine 185: 1651–1659.

von Herrath MG, Fujinami RS and Whitton JL (2003) Microorganisms and autoimmunity: making the barren field fertile? Nature Review of Microbiology 1(2): 151–157.

Holoshitz J, Klajman A, Druker I et al. (1986) T lymphocytes of theumatoid arthritis patients show augmented reactivity to a fraction of mycobacteria crossreactive with cartilage. Lancet ii: 305–309.

Horstmann RD, Sievertsen HJ, Leippe M and Fischetti VA (1992) Role of fibrinogen in complement inhibition by streptococcal M protein. Infection and Immunity 60: 5036–5041.

Huber SA and Cunningham MW (1996) Streptococcal M protein peptide with similarity to myosin induces CD4+ T cell‐dependent myocarditis in MRL/++ mice and induces partial tolerance against coxsackieviral myocarditis. Journal of Immunology 156(9): 3528–3534.

Huber SA, Moraska A and Cunningham M (1994) Alterations in major histocompatibility complex association of myocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3 mutants selected with monoclonal antibodies to group A streptococci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 91(12): 5543–5547.

Iliev A, Spatz l, Subhransu R and Diamond B (1994) Lack of allelic exclusion permits autoreactive B cells to escape deletion. Journal of Immunology 153: 3551–3556.

Ito T, Yang M and Wang YH (2007) Plasmacytoid dendritic cells prime IL‐10‐producing T regulatory cells by inducible costimulator ligand. Journal of Experimental Medicine 204(1): 105–115.

Jacobs BC, Bullens RW, O'Hanlon GM et al. (2002) Detection and prevalence of alpha‐latrotoxin‐like effects of serum from patients with Guillain–Barre syndrome. Muscle Nerve 25(4): 549–558.

Jacobs BC, Koga M, van Rijs W et al. (2008) Subclass IgG to motor gangliosides related to infection and clinical course in Guillain–Barre syndrome. Journal of Neuroimmunology 194(1–2): 181–190.

James JA, Kaufman KM, Farris AD et al. (1997) An increased prevalence of Epstein–Barr virus infection in young patients suggests a possible etiology for systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Clinical Investigation 100: 3019–3026.

Kabat EA, Nickerson KG, Liao J et al. (1986) A human monoclonal macroglobulin with specificity for alpha(2–8)‐ linked poly N‐acetyl neuraminic acid, the capsular polysaccharide of group B meningococci and Escherichia coli K1, which crossreacts with polynucleotides and with denatured DNA. Journal of Experimental Medicine 164(2): 642–654.

Kearney JF, Vakil M and Solvason N (1989) The role of idiotypic interactions and B‐cell subsets in development of the B‐cell repertoire. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology LIV: 203–207.

Kirvan CA, Cox CJ, Swedo SE and Cunningham MW (2007) Tubulin is a neuronal target of autoantibodies in Sydenham's chorea. Journal of Immunology 178: 7412–7421.

Kirvan CA, Swedo SE, Henser S and Cunningham MW (2003) Mimicry and autoantibody‐mediated neuronal cell signaling in Sydenham chorea. Nature Medicine 9: 914–920.

Li Y, Heuser JS, Cunningham LC, Kosanke SD and Cunningham MW (2006) Mimicry and antibody‐mediated cell signaling in autoimmune myocarditis. Journal of Immunology 177(11): 8234–8240.

Liao L, Sindhwani R, Rojkind M et al. (1995) Antibody‐mediated autoimmune myocarditis depends on genetically determined target organ sensitivity. Journal of Experimental Medicine 187: 1123–1131.

Libbey JE, Sweeten TL, McMahon WM and Fujinami RS (2005) Autistic disorder and viral infections. Journal of Neurovirology 11(1): 1–10.

Mascaro‐Blanco A, Alvarez K, Yu X et al. (2008) Consequences of unlocking the cardiac myosin molecule in human myocarditis and cardiomyopathies. Autoimmunity 41(6): 442–453.

McCormack JM, Crossley CA, Ayoub EM, Harley JB and Cunningham MW (1993) Poststreptococcal anti‐myosin antibody idiotype associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome. Journal of Infectious Diseases 168(4): 915–921.

McNamara C, Zinkernagel AS, Macheboeuf P et al. (2008) Coiled‐coil irregularities and instabilities in group A streptococcus M1 are required for virulence. Science 319: 1405–1408.

Monestier M, Bonin B, Migliorini P et al. (1987) Autoantibodies of various specificities encoded by genes from the VH J558 family bind to foreign antigens and share idiotopes of antibodies specific for self and foreign antigens. Journal of Experimental Medicine 166(4): 1109–1124.

Mosman T and Coffman T (1989) Th1 and Th2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties. Annual Review of Immunology 7: 145–173.

Ono M, Shimizu J, Miyachi Y and Sakaguchi S (2006) Control of autoimmune myocarditis and multiorgan inflammation by glucocorticoid‐induced TNF receptor family related protein(high), Foxp3‐expressing CD25+ and CD25‐ regulatory T cells. Journal of Immunology 176(8): 4748–4756.

Oomes PG, Jacobs BC, Hayenberg MP, Banffer JR and van der Meche FG (1995) Anti‐GM1 IgG antibodies and Campylobacter bacteria in Guillain–Barre syndrome: evidence of molecular mimicry. Annals of Neurology 38: 170–175.

Paque RE (1990) Polyclonal anti‐idiotypic antibodies exhibit antigenic mimicry of limited type 1 fimbrial proteins of E. coli. Infection and Immunity 58: 680–686.

Putterman C and Diamond B (1998) Immunization with a peptide surrogate for double stranded DNA (dsDNA) induces autoantibody production and renal immunoglobulin deposition. Journal of Experimental Medicine 188: 29–38.

Quinn A, Shinnick TM and Cunningham MW (1996) Anti‐Hsp 65 antibodies recognize M proteins of group A streptococci. Infection and Immunity 64: 818–824.

Ray SK, Putterman C and Diamond B (1996) Pathogenic autoanibodies are routinely generated during the response to foreign antigen: a paradign for autoimmune disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 93: 2019–2024.

Sakaguchi S (2000) Regulatory T cells: key controllers of immunologic self‐tolerance. Cell 101: 455–458.

Samoilova E, Horton J, Zhang H and Chen Y (1997) CD40L blockade prevents autoimmune encephalitis and hampers Th1 but not Th2 pathway of T cell differentiation. Journal of Molecular Medicine 75: 603–608.

Schwimmbeck PL and Oldstone MBA (1989) Klebsiella pneumoniae and HLA B27‐associated diseases of Reiter's syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 45: 45–56.

Shevach EM (2000) Regulatory T cells in autoimmmunity*. Annual Review of Immunology 18: 423–449.

Shikhman AR and Cunningham MW (1997) Trick and treat: toward peptide mimic vaccines. Nature Biotechnology 15: 512–513.

Shikhman AR, Greenspan NS and Cunningham MW (1994) Cytokeratin peptide SFGSGFGGGY mimics N‐acetyl‐beta‐d‐glucosamine in reaction with antibodies and lectins, and induces in vivo anti‐carbohydrate antibody response. Journal of Immunology 153(12): 5593–5606.

Shimoda S, Nakamura M, Ishibashi H, Hayashida K and Niho Y (1995) HLA DRB4 0101‐restricted immunodominant T cell autoepitope of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in primary biliary cirrhosis: evidence of molecular mimicry in human autoimmune diseases. Journal of Experimental Medicine 181: 1835–1845.

Shoenfeld Y, Brill S, Weinberger A, Pinkhas J and Isenberg DA (1986) High levels of a common anti‐DNA idiotype (16/6), a genetic marker for SLE. Acta Haematologica 76(2–3): 107–109.

Steinman RM, Hawiger D and Nussenzweig MC (2003) Tolerogenic dendritic cells. Annual Review of Immunology 21: 685–711.

Sutmuller RP, den Brok MH, Kramer M et al. (2006) Toll‐like receptor 2 controls expansion and function of regulatory T cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation 116(2): 485–494.

Swedo SE (1994) Sydenham's chorea: a model for childhood autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Medical Association 272: 1788–1791.

Talal N (1990) Immunologic and viral factors in Sjogren's syndrome. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 8: 23–26.

Taurog JD, Richardson JA, Goft JT et al. (1994) The germfree state prevents development of gut and joint inflammatory disease in HLA‐B27 transgenic rats. Journal of Experimental Medicine 180: 2359–2364.

Tian J, Lehmann PV and Kaufman DL (1994) T cell cross‐reactivity between coxsackievirus and glutamate decarboxylase is associated with a murine diabetes susceptibility allele. Journal of Experimental Medicine 180: 1979–1984.

Tsunoda I, Lane TE, Blackett J and Fujinami RS (2004) Distinct roles for IP‐10/CXCL10 in three animal models, Theiler's virus infection, EAE, and MHV infection, for multiple sclerosis: implication of differing roles for IP‐10. Multiple Sclerosis 10(1): 26–34.

Tsunoda I, Libbey JE, Kobayashi‐Warren M and Fujinami RS (2006) IFN‐gamma production and astrocyte recognition by autoreactive T cells induced by Theiler's virus infection: role of viral strains and capsid proteins. Journal of Neuroimmunology 172(1–2): 85–93.

Vakil M, Briles DE and Kearney JF (1991) Antigen‐independent selection of T15 idiotype during B cell ontogeny in mice. Developmental Immunology 1: 203–212.

Valencia X, Stephens G, Goldbach‐Mansky R et al. (2006) TNF downmodulates the function of human CD4+CD25hi T‐regulatory cells. Blood 108(1): 253–261.

Weaver CT, Hatton RD, Mangan PR and Harrington LE (2007) IL‐17 family cytokines and the expanding diversity of effector T cell lineages. Annual Review of Immunology 25: 821–852.

Wedemayer GJ, Patten PA, Wang LH, Schulty PG and Stevens RC (1997) Structural insights into the evolution of an antibody combining site. Science 276: 1665–1669.

Williams RC Jr (1988) Hypothesis: rheumatoid factors are antiidiotypes related to bacterial or viral Fc receptors. Arthritis and Rheumatism 31(9): 1204–1207.

Willison HJ, Halstead SK, Beveridge E et al. (2008) The role of complement and complement regulators in mediating motor nerve terminal injury in murine models of Guillain–Barre syndrome. Journal of Neuroimmunology 201–202: 172–182.

Willison HJ and Kennedy PG (1993) Gangliosides and bacterial toxins in Guillain–Barre syndrome. Journal of Neuroimmunology 46(1–2): 105–112.

Willison HJ, O'Hanlon G, Paterson G et al. (1997) Mechanisms of action of anti‐GM1 and anti‐GQ1b ganglioside antibodies in Guillain–Barre syndrome. Journal of Infectious Diseases 176(suppl. 2): S144–S149.

Wucherpfennig KW and Strominger JL (1995) Molecular mimicry in T cell‐mediated autoimmunity: viral peptides activate human T cell clones specific for myelin basic protein. Cell 80: 695–705.

Zhao Z‐S, Granucci F, Yeh L, Schaffer PA and Cantor H (1998) Molecular mimicry by Herpes Simplex virus‐type 1: autoimmune disease after viral infection. Science 279: 1344–1347.

Further Reading

Adderson EE, Shikhman AR, Ward KE and Cunningham MW (1998) Molecular analysis of polyreactive monoclonal antibodies from rheumatic carditis: human anti‐N‐acetyl‐ glucosamine/anti‐myosin antibody V region genes. Journal of Immunology 161: 2020–2031.

Cunningham MW (1993) Bacterial antigen mimicry. In: Theofilopoulos A (ed.) The Molecular Pathology of Autoimmune Diseases, pp. 245–261. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Cunningham MW (1996) Streptococci and rheumatic fever. In: Friedman H (ed.) Microorganisms and Autoimmune Disease, pp. 13–66. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp.

Cunningham MW (2006) T regulatory cells: sentinels against autoimmune heart disease. Circulation Research 99: 1024–1026.

Eriksson U, Ricci R, Hunziker L et al. (2003) Dendritic cell‐induced autoimmune heart failure requires cooperation between adaptive and innate immunity. Nature Medicine 9: 1484–1490.

Fae K, Kalil J, Toubert A and Guilherme L (2004) Heart infiltrating T cell clones from a rheumatic heart disease patient display a common TCR usage and a degenerate antigen recognition pattern. Molecular Immunology 40: 1129–1135.

Guilherme L, Cunha‐Neto E, Coelho V et al. (1995) Human heart‐filtrating T cell clones from rheumatic heart disease patients recognize both streptococcal and cardiac proteins. Circulation 92: 415–420.

Guilherme L, Kalil J and Cunningham M (2006) Molecular mimicry in the autoimmune pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease. Autoimmunity 39: 31–39.

Horstman RD, Jurgen Sievertsen H, Knobloch J and Fischetti VA (1988) Antiphagocytic activity of streptococcal M protein: selective binding of complement control protein factor H. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 85: 1657–1661.

Huber S and Schramm C (2006) TGF‐beta and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Frontiers in Bioscience 11: 1014–1023.

James JA, Kaufman KM, Farris AD et al. (1997b) An increased prevalence of Epstein–Barr virus infection in young patients suggests a possible etiology for systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Clinical Investigation 100: 3019–3026.

Kearney JF and Vakil M (1986) Idiotype‐directed interactions during ontogeny play a major role in the establishment of the adult B cell repertoire. European Journal of Immunology 16: 1151–1158.

Kirvan CA, Swedo SE, Kurahara D and Cunningham MW (2006a) Streptococcal mimicry and antibody‐mediated cell signaling in the pathogenesis of Sydenham's chorea. Autoimmunity 39: 21–29.

Kirvan CA, Swedo SE, Snider LA and Cunningham MW (2006b) Antibody‐mediated neuronal cell signaling in behavior and movement disorders. Journal Neuroimmunology 179: 173–179.

Krisher K and Cunningham MW (1985) Myosin: a link between streptococci and heart. Science 227: 413–415.

Li Y, Heuser JS, Kosanke SD, Hemric M and Cunningham MW (2005) Protection against experimental autoimmune myocarditis is mediated by IL‐10 producing T cells that are controlled by dendritic cells. American Journal of Pathology 167: 5–15.

Luo X, Tarbell KV, Yang H et al. (2007) Dendritic cells with TGF‐beta1 differentiate naive CD4+CD25 T cells into islet‐protective Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104: 2821–2826.

Mangan RR, Harrington LE, O'Quinn DB et al. (2006) Transforming growth factor‐beta induces develpment of the TH17 lineage. Nature 441: 231–234.

McCormack JM, Crossley CA, Ayoub EM, Harley JB and Cunningham MW (1993) Post‐streptococcal anti‐myosin antibody marker associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome. Journal of Infectious Diseases 168: 915–921.

Pruksakorn S, Currie B, Brandt ECP et al. (1994) Identification of T cell autoepitopes that cross‐react with the C‐terminal segment of the M protein of group A streptococci. International Immunology 6: 1235–1244.

Quinn A, Adderson EE, Shackelford PG, Carroll WL and Cunningham MW (1995) Autoantibody germ‐line gene segment encodes VH and VL regions of a human anti‐streptococcal monoclonal antibody recognizing streptococcal M protein and human cardiac myosin epitopes. Journal of Immunology 154: 4203–4212.

Shevach EM, McHugh RS, Piccirillo CA and Thornton AM (2001) Control of T‐cell activation by CD4+ CD25+ suppressor T cells. Immunological Review 182: 58–67.

Shikhman AR and Cunningham MW (1994) Immunological mimicry between N‐acetyl‐beta‐d‐glucosamine and cytokeratin peptides. Evidence for a microbially driven anti‐keratin antibody response. Journal of Immunology 152: 4375–4387.

Shikhman AR, Greenspan NS and Cunningham MW (1993) A subset of mouse monoclonal antibodies cross‐reactive with cytoskeletal proteins and group A streptococcal M proteins recognizes N‐acetyl‐beta‐d‐glucosamine. Journal of Immunology 151: 3902–3913.

Steinman RM (2007) Lasker Basic Medical Research Award. Dendritic cells: versatile controllers of the immune system. Nature Medicine 13: 1155–1159.

Steinman RM and Banchereau J (2007) Taking dendritic cells into medicine. Nature 449: 419–426.

Steinman RM and Nussenzweig MC (2002) Avoiding horror autotoxicus: the importance of dendritic cells in peripheral T cell tolerance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99: 351–358.

Weaver CT, Harrington LE, Mangan PR, Gavrieli M and Murphy KM (2006) Th17: an effector CD4 T cell lineage with regulatory T cell ties. Immunity 24: 677–688.

Yamazaki S, Bonito AJ, Spisek R et al. (2007) Dendritic cells are specialized accessory cells along with TGF‐ for the differentiation of Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells from peripheral Foxp3 precursors. Blood 110: 4293–4302.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Cunningham, Madeleine White(Sep 2009) Molecular Mimicry. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000958.pub2]