Reproductive Immunology

Abstract

Reproductive immunology is an interdisciplinary science, which deals with the role of immunocytes and cytokines in reproduction and, as a consequence, immune control of fertility and sexually transmitted diseases. In this article, we briefly discuss Veterinary Reproductive Immunology and then go back to the triggering concepts and focus on the foetus as an allograft paradox, if any (alternate theories to the self/non‐self vision of immunity, for which viviparity is not a problem, are dealt with). We then deal with various aspects of the materno‐foetal relationship at cellular and molecular level, both in the established pregnancy and at implantation. This leads us to discuss implantation failure(s) and recurrent spontaneous abortion as well as immune control of fertility and control of STDs.

Key Concepts

  • The foetus is usually seen as an allograft in mother's womb, which should be rejected by maternal immune system.
  • The placental (allo) antigenicity is severely reduced.
  • A complex cytokinic network specifically regulates some aspects of maternal immunity while sparing trophic and angiogenic circuits.
  • Uterine natural killer cells are a specialised subset with limited cytotoxicity but trophic, immunoregulatory and angiogenic properties.
  • Deregulations of the cytokinic uterine environment can lead to sterility.
  • Regulatory T cells are important in placental pregnancy, and their deletion enhances pregnancy loss.
  • Immune interception of fertility is feasible.

Keywords: reproduction; immunology; contraception; infertility; diseases

Figure 1. The human placenta.
Figure 2. The CBA × DBA/2 murine abortion system: CBA/J (H‐2k) females mated with DBA/2 (H‐2d) females exhibit a high rate of foetal resorptions not seen when mated with BALB/c males (also H‐2d) nor in other matings (such as CBA/J × CBA/J, BALB/c × BALB/C and C3He × DBA/2 – also H‐2k × H‐2d). Pre‐immunisation of the CBA/J mother with paternal MHC compatible, minor loci disparate BALB/c splenocytes correct resorption rates.
Figure 3. Implantation steps.
Figure 4. Two possible immune defects in implantation. Lack of proper (inflammatory) cytokine production leads to adhesion defects, but conversely an excess of some of these will activate NK cells towards a cytostatic/cytotoxic/procoagulant pathway and induce early foetal losses or first trimester abortion.
Figure 5. The TH1:TH2 paradigm.
Figure 6. One of the mechanisms of HIV‐1 transmission from mother to child: fusion of infected lymphocytes with trophoblasts (here the BeW0 choriocarcinoma cell line).
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References

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Further Reading

Aitken RJ (2002) Immunocontraceptive vaccines for human use. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 57 (1–2): 273–287.

Baines MG and Gendron RL (1993) In: Chaouat G, (ed). Natural and Experimental Animal Models of Reproductive Failure in Immunology of Pregnancy, pp. 173–203. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

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Croy BA (2014) Reproductive immunology issue 2: cellular and molecular biology. Cellular & Molecular Immunology 11: 503–505.

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Moussa M, Mognetti B, Dubanchet S, et al. (1999) Vertical transmission of HIV: parameters which might affect infection of placental trophoblasts by HIV‐1: a review. Biomed group on the study of in utero transmission of HIV‐1. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology 41 (5): 312–319.

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Ruocco MG, Chaouat G, Florez L, Bensussan A and Klatzmann D (2014) Regulatory T cells in pregnancy: historical perspective, state of the art, and burning questions. Frontiers in Immunology 5: 389.

Toth FD, Bacsi A, Beck Z and Szabo J (2001) Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hunganca 48 (3–4): 413–427.

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How to Cite close
Chaouat, Gérard(Apr 2015) Reproductive Immunology. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000966.pub2]