Gene Delivery by Viruses

Abstract

Viral vector systems are very useful for delivering genes to cells. Commonly used systems include vectors derived from retroviruses, lentiviruses, adenoviruses, adeno‐associated viruses and herpesviruses.

Keywords: gene therapy; retrovirus; lentivirus; adenovirus; adeno‐associated virus

Figure 1.

The retrovirus infects a host cell, depositing its RNA into the cell as the virus uncoats. Viral single‐stranded RNA is then reverse‐transcribed into double‐stranded DNA using viral reverse transcriptase. The linear DNA is transported into the nucleus, where it integrates randomly into the host's genome using the viral integrase.

close

References

Bannerji R (1995) Genetics and biology of retroviral vectors. In: Kaplitt MG and Loewy AD (eds) Viral Vectors: Gene Therapy and Neuroscience Applications, pp. 75–88. San Diego: Academic Press.

Brody SL and Crystal RG (1994) Adenovirus‐mediated in vivo gene transfer. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 716: 90–101; discussion 101–103.

Glorioso JC, DeLuca NA and Fink DJ (1995) Development and application of herpes simplex virus vectors for human gene therapy. Annual Review of Microbiology 49: 675–710.

Hacein‐Bey‐Abina S, Von Kalle C, Schmidt M et al. (2003) LMO2‐associated clonal T cell proliferation in two patients after gene therapy for SCID‐X1. Science 302: 415–419.

Mitani K and Kubo S (2002) Adenovirus as an integrating vector. Current Gene Therapy 2: 135–144.

Nakai H, Storm TA and Kay MA (2000) Increasing the size of rAAV‐mediated expression casettes in vivo by intermolecular joining of two complementary vectors. Nature Biotechnology 18: 527–532.

Reddy PS, Sakhuja K, Ganesh S et al. (2002) Sustained human factor VIII expression in hemophilia A mice following systemic delivery of a gutless adenoviral vector. Molecular Therapy 1: 63–73.

Shenk T (1995) Group C adenoviruses as vectors for gene therapy. In: Kaplitt MG and Loewy AD (eds) Viral Vectors: Gene Therapy and Neuroscience Applications, pp. 43–54. San Diego: Academic Press.

Smith AE (1995) Viral vectors in gene therapy. Annual Review of Microbiology 49: 807–838.

Snoeck HW, Tao W and Klotman ME (1997) Adeno‐associated viral vectors: background and technical aspects. Experimental Nephrology 5: 514–520.

Wu X, Yuan L, Crise B et al. (2003) Transcription start regions in the human genome are favored targets for MLV integration. Science 300: 1749–1751.

Zufferey R, Nagy D and Mandel RJ (1997) Multiply attenuated lentiviral vector achieves efficient gene delivery in vivo. Nature Biotechnology 15: 871–875.

Further Reading

Kaplitt MG and Loewy AD (eds) (1995) Viral Vectors: Gene Therapy and Neuroscience Applications. San Diego: Academic Press.

Smith AE (1995) Viral vectors in gene therapy. Annual Review of Microbiology 49: 807–838.

Thomas CE, Ehrhardt E and Kay MA (2003) Progress and problems with the use of viral vectors for gene therapy. Nature Reviews Genetics 4: 346–358.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Ginsburg, Daniel S, Thyagarajan, Bhaskar, Phillips, Julie E, and Calos, Michele P(Sep 2005) Gene Delivery by Viruses. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0003927]