Baculoviruses

Abstract

Baculoviruses are large, complex deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that infect arthropods. The viruses are highly pathogenic and a few members have been successfully exploited as biological control agents for agricultural and forestry pests. With the exception of a virus pathogenic to silk moths (Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV)), most baculovirus research is geared towards increasing virulence. The type species of baculoviruses, Autographa californica NPV, is widely used as a eukaryotic expression system for the production of vaccines and other proteins of medical and biological importance. Baculoviruses are also good model systems for the study of apoptosis, DNA replication, transcription, pathogenesis, membrane fusion and virus infectivity.

Key Concepts:

  • Baculoviruses are rod‐shaped, enveloped viruses of 30–60 nm in diameter and 250–300 nm in length.

  • Baculoviruses infect insects of the orders Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera.

  • Baculoviruses have been genetically engineered to be highly efficient eukaryotic expression systems.

  • Baculoviruses are unusual in making two different infectious forms: occluded virus for spreading infection from insect to insect and budded virus for spreading of viral infection within an infected insect.

  • Baculoviruses have circular‐double stranded genomes, ranging from 80 to 180 kb.

  • Baculoviruses use actin filaments for intracellular transport.

  • Baculovirus DNA is infectious.

  • Baculoviruses use host RNA polymerase for synthesis of early genes and encode a viral RNA polymerase for transcription of late genes.

  • Baculovirus infection spreads through the tracheal system.

  • Baculoviruses have been successfully used to control insect pests.

Keywords: arthropods; insects; Baculoviridae; biocontrol; viral evolution; virus genes; viral infectivity; expression systems; DNA viruses

Figure 1.

Occluded virions. Baculovirus genera are based on the structures of occluded virus, polyhedral shaped for nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) with many enveloped nucleocapsids or smaller ovoid occlusions with a single nucleocapsid for granulovirus (GV). NPVs may contain multiple nucleocapsids (MNPV) or single nucleocapsids (SNPV).

Figure 2.

Structures of ODV and BV. The two baculovirus phenotypes showing shared and phenotype‐specific components.

Figure 3.

Genome structure of AcMNPV. The locations and orientations of ORFs are indicated by arrows. ORF1 is at the 12:00 position of the circular map. ORFs with known functions are labelled. The restriction map for EcoRI is indicated by letters. Locations of homologous repeat (hr) sequences are indicated on the inside of the circle as small filled boxes. Redrawn from Ayres et al..

Figure 4.

Baculovirus life cycle. Primary infection begins with digestion of food contaminated with viral occlusions. Occlusions dissociate in the alkaline gut, releasing ODV, which fuse with midgut cells.

close

References

Ayres MD, Howard SC, Kuzio J, Lopez‐Ferber M and Possee RD (1994) The complete DNA sequence of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology 202: 586–605.

Bonning BC and Nusawardani T (2007) Introduction to the use of baculoviruses as biological insecticides. Methods in Molecular Biology 388: 359–366.

Braunagel SC, Burks JK, Rosas‐Acosta G et al. (1999) Mutations within the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus FP25K gene decrease the accumulation of ODV‐E66 and alter its intranuclear transport. Journal of Virology 73: 8559–8570.

Braunagel SC and Summers MD (2007) Molecular biology of the baculovirus occlusion‐derived virus envelope. Current Drug Targets 8: 1084–1095.

Chen CJ and Thiem SM (1997) Differential infectivity of two Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus mutants on three permissive cell lines is the result of lef‐7 deletion. Virology 227: 88–95.

Duffy SP, Young AM, Morin B et al. (2006) Sequence analysis and organization of the Neodiprion abietis nucleopolyhedrovirus genome. Journal of Virology 80: 6952–6963.

Evans JT, Leisy DJ and Rohrmann GF (1997) Characterization of the interaction between the baculovirus replication factors LEF‐1 and LEF‐2. Journal of Virology 71: 3114–3119.

Fraser M (1986) Ultrastructural observations of virion maturation in Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus infected Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Journal of Ultrastructure and Molecular Structure Research 95: 189–195.

Friesen PD (1997) Regulation of baculovirus early gene expression. In: Miller LK (ed.) The Baculoviruses, pp. 141–170. New York: Plenum Press.

Glocker B, Hoopes RR Jr and Rohrmann GF (1992) In vitro transactivation of baculovirus early genes by nuclear extracts from Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus‐infected Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Journal of Virology 66: 3476–3484.

Gross CH, Russell RL and Rohrmann GF (1994) Orgyia pseudotsugata baculovirus p10 and polyhedron envelope protein genes: analysis of their relative expression levels and role in polyhedron structure. The Journal of General Virology 75: 1115–1123.

Guarino LA and Dong W (1991) Expression of an enhancer‐binding protein in insect cells transfected with the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus IE1 gene. Journal of Virology 65: 3676–3680.

Guarino LA and Summers MD (1986) Functional mapping of a trans‐activating gene required for expression of a baculovirus delayed‐early gene. Journal of Virology 57: 563–571.

Guarino LA, Dong W and Jin J (2002) In vitro activity of the baculovirus late expression factor LEF‐5. Journal of Virology 76: 12663–12675.

Guarino LA, Xu B, Jin J and Dong W (1998) A virus‐encoded RNA polymerase purified from baculovirus‐infected cells. Journal of Virology 72: 7985–7991.

Harrison RL, Jarvis DL and Summers MD (1996) The role of the AcMNPV 25K gene, ‘FP25,’ in baculovirus polh and p10 expression. Virology 226: 34–46.

Hayakawa T, Rohrmann GF and Hashimoto Y (2000) Patterns of Genome Organization and content in lepidopteran baculoviruses. Virology 278: 1–12.

Hefferon KL, Oomens AG, Monsma SA, Finnerty CM and Blissard GW (1999) Host cell receptor binding by baculovirus GP64 and kinetics of virion entry. Virology 258: 455–468.

Herniou EA, Olszewski JA, Cory JS and O'Reilly DR (2003) The genome sequence and evolution of baculoviruses. Annual Review of Entomology 48: 211–234.

Inceoglu AB, Kamita SG and Hammock BD (2006) Genetically modified baculoviruses: a historical overview and future outlook. Advances in Virus Research 68: 323–360.

Inceoglu AB, Kamita SG, Hinton AC et al. (2001) Recombinant baculoviruses for insect control. Pest Management Science 57: 981–987.

Isobe R, Kojima K, Matsuyama T et al. (2004) Use of RNAi technology to confer enhanced resistance to BmNPV on transgenic silkworms. Archives of Virology 149: 1931–1940.

Jehle JA, Blissard GW, Bonning BC et al. (2006) On the classification and nomenclature of baculoviruses: a proposal for revision. Archives of Virology 151: 1257–1266.

Jin J, Dong W and Guarino LA (1998) The LEF‐4 subunit of baculovirus RNA polymerase has RNA 5′‐ triphosphatase and ATPase activities. Journal of Virology 72: 10011–10019.

Jin J and Guarino LA (2000) 3′‐end formation of baculovirus late RNAs. Journal of Virology 74: 8930–8937.

Kamita SG, Nagasaka K, Chua JW et al. (2005) A baculovirus‐encoded protein tyrosine phosphatase gene induces enhanced locomotory activity in a lepidopteran host. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102: 2584–2589.

Keddie BA, Aponte GW and Volkman LE (1989) The pathway of infection of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in an insect host. Science 243: 1728–1730.

Kool M, Ahrens CH, Goldbach RW, Rohrmann GF and Vlak JM (1994) Identification of genes involved in DNA replication of the Autographa californica baculovirus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 91: 11212–11216.

Kool M, Voeten JT, Goldbach RW, Tramper J and Vlak JM (1993) Identification of seven putative origins of Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA replication. The Journal of General Virology 74(Pt 12): 2661–2668.

Li L, Harwood SH and Rohrmann GF (1999) Identification of additional genes that influence baculovirus late gene expression. Virology 255: 9–19.

Lin G and Blissard GW (2002) Analysis of an Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus lef‐11 knockout: LEF‐11 is essential for viral DNA replication. Journal of Virology 76: 2770–2779.

Lu A and Miller LK (1997) Regulation of baculovirus late and very late gene expression. In: Miller LK (ed.) The Baculoviruses, pp. 193–216. New York: Plenum Press.

McDougal VV and Guarino LA (1999) Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA polymerase: measurements of processivity and strand displacement. Journal of Virology 73: 4908–4918.

McDougal VV and Guarino LA (2000) The Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus p143 gene encodes a DNA helicase. Journal of Virology 74: 5273–5279.

Mikhailov VS and Rohrmann GF (2002) Binding of the baculovirus very late expression factor 1 (VLF‐1) to different DNA structures. BMC Molecular Biology 3: 14.

Mori H, Nakazawa H, Shirai N et al. (1992) Foreign gene expression by a baculovirus vector with an expanded host range. The Journal of General Virology 73(Pt 7): 1877–1880.

Morris TD and Miller LK (1994) Mutational analysis of a baculovirus major late promoter. Gene 140: 147–153.

Ohkawa T and Volkman LE (1999) Nuclear F‐actin is required for AcMNPV nucleocapsid morphogenesis. Virology 264: 1–4.

Ohkawa T, Volkman LE and Welch MD (2010) Actin‐based motility drives baculovirus transit to the nucleus and cell surface. Journal of Cell Biology 190: 187–195.

Okano K, Mikhailov VS and Maeda S (1999) Colocalization of baculovirus IE‐1 and two DNA‐binding proteins, DBP and LEF‐3, to viral replication factories. Journal of Virology 73: 110–119.

O'Reilly DR, Miller LK and Luckow VA (1993) Baculovirus Expression Vectors: A Laboratory Manual. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co.

Pearson M, Bjornson R, Pearson G and Rohrmann G (1992) The Autographa californica baculovirus genome: evidence for multiple replication origins. Science 257: 1382–1384.

Perera OP, Valles SM, Green TB et al. (2006) Molecular analysis of an occlusion body protein from Culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus (CuniNPV). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 91: 35–42.

Prikhod'ko EA and Miller LK (1996) Induction of apoptosis by baculovirus transactivator IE1. Journal of Virology 70: 7116–7124.

Prikhod'ko EA, Lu A, Wilson JA and Miller LK (1999) In vivo and in vitro analysis of baculovirus ie‐2 mutants. Journal of Virology 73: 2460–2468.

Rankin C, Ooi BG and Miller LK (1988) Eight base pairs encompassing the transcriptional start point are the major determinant for baculovirus polyhedrin gene expression. Gene 70: 39–49.

Rapp JC, Wilson JA and Miller LK (1998) Nineteen baculovirus open reading frames, including LEF‐12, support late gene expression. Journal of Virology 72: 10197–10206.

Ross L and Guarino LA (1997) Cycloheximide inhibition of delayed early gene expression in baculovirus‐infected cells. Virology 232: 105–113.

Upton C, Slack S, Hunter AL, Ehlers A and Roper RL (2003) Poxvirus orthologous clusters: toward defining the minimum essential poxvirus genome. Journal of Virology 77: 7590–7600.

Vanarsdall AL, Okano K and Rohrmann GF (2006) Characterization of the role of very late expression factor 1 in baculovirus capsid structure and DNA processing. Journal of Virology 80: 1724–1733.

Volkman LE (2007) Baculovirus infectivity and the actin cytoskeleton. Current Drug Targets 8: 1075–1083.

Washburn JO, Chan EY, Volkman LE, Aumiller JJ and Jarvis DL (2003) Early synthesis of budded virus envelope fusion protein GP64 enhances Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus virulence in orally infected Heliothis virescens. Journal of Virology 77: 280–290.

Further Reading

Clem RJ (2001) Baculoviruses and apoptosis: the good, the bad, and the ugly. Cell Death Differentiation 8: 137–143.

Goley ED, Ohkawa T, Mancuso J et al. (2006) Dynamic nuclear actin assembly by Arp2/3 complex and a baculovirus WASP‐like protein. Science 314: 464–467.

Heimpel AM, Thomas ED, Adams JR and Smith LJ (1973) The presence of nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Trichoplusiani on cabbage from the market shelf. Environmental Entomology 2: 72–76.

Kost TA, Condreay JP, Ames RS, Rees S and Romanos MA (2007) Application of BacMam virus gene delivery technology in a drug discovery setting. Drug Discovery Today 12: 9–10.

Krammer F and Grabherr R (2010) Alternative influenza vaccines made by insect cells. Trends in Molecular medicine 16: 313–320.

Miller LK (1997) The Baculoviruses. New York: Plenum Press.

O'Reilly DR, Miller LK and Luckow VA (1992) Baculovirus Expression Vectors: A Laboratory Manual. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co.

Rohrmann GF (2008) Baculovirus Molecular Biology. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information

Shi X and Jarvis DL (2007) Protein N‐glycosylation in the baculovirus‐insect cell system. Current Drug Targets 8: 1116–1125.

Volkman LE (1995) Baculovirus bounty. Science 269: 1834.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Guarino, Linda(Nov 2011) Baculoviruses. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001008.pub2]