Bunyaviridae

Abstract

The family Bunyaviridae is a large and diverse group of enveloped viruses with ribonucleic acid (RNA) genomes. The family consists of over 300 species that are divided into 5 genera. All bunyavirus genomes are comprised of three negative‐sense RNA segments, but they differ in their coding strategies to generate the structural and nonstructural proteins required for replication. Viruses are transmitted by infected vectors that include mosquitoes, phlebotomine flies, ticks and rodents. Bunyaviruses are distributed worldwide and are responsible for a variety of illnesses in human hosts ranging from mild to haemorrhagic fevers or fatal encephalitis. Thus, bunyaviruses are important infectious agents and vector control, precautionary measures, and education are needed to prevent future outbreaks in endemic areas.

Key Concepts

  • Bunyavirus replication occurs in the cytoplasm via a viral RNA‐dependent RNA polymerase.

  • All bunyavirus genomes consist of three negative‐sense RNA segments that encode for structural and/or nonstructural proteins.

  • Structural proteins are required for replication and nonstructural proteins generally play a role in evading host cellular responses.

  • Vectors that transmit bunyaviruses to humans include mosquitoes, phelobotomine flies, ticks and rodents.

  • Symptoms of bunyavirus infection include mild febrile illness, haemorrhagic fever and encephalitis.

  • Bunyaviruses can be found worldwide, so precautionary measures should be taken when travelling to endemic areas.

Keywords: orthobunyavirus; hantavirus; nairovirus; phlebovirus; tospovirus

Figure 1.

(a) Schematic representation of a bunyavirus particle. Virions are 80–120 nm in diameter. The spikes project approximately 5–10 nm above the viral lipid membrane and are composed of hetero‐oligomeric complexes of the glycoproteins, GN and GC (small inset). The three negative‐sense single‐stranded RNA genome segments – small (S), medium (M) and large (L) – are complexed with the N protein (shown in blue), forming ribonucleoprotein (RNPs) complexes. Complementary nucleotides at the 3′‐ and 5′ end of each genome segment undergo base pairing to form panhandle structures (magnified inset). The RNP complexes are likely incorporated into virions through interactions with the C‐terminal tails of the glycoproteins. (b) Ultrastructure of Qalyub virus, genus Nairovirus. Negative stain electron micrograph. Note knob‐like, irregular spikes. Reprinted with permission from Clerx et al., copyright 1981 Society for General Microbiology. (c) Ultrastructure of Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, genus Nairovirus. Negative stain electron micrograph. Note dimpled or hollow cavities in spikes. Reproduced with permission from Ellis et al., copyright 1981 Springer. (d) Ultrastructure of Hantaan virus, genus Hantavirus. Negative stain electron micrograph. Note grid‐like arrangement of spikes on virions. Reproduced with permission from Martin et al., copyright 1985 Springer. Structure of Uukuniemi virus as determined by electron cryotomography. Shown are virions with spikes in tall (pH 7) conformation (e) and in flat (pH 6) conformation (f). Insets show close‐ups of the area indicated with dashed lines. Flat spikes have a barrel‐like appearance, whereas taller spikes have a more pointed appearance. The relationship between the five‐coordinated positions (indicated with a pentagon) and six‐coordinated positions (numbered 1–3) is consistent with T=12 triangulation. Bridging densities (indicated by arrows) are present between the spikes at every position and in both conformations. Isosurfaces were rendered at 1.5σ above the mean density. Reproduced with permission from Overby et al., copyright 2008 National Academy of Sciences, USA.

Figure 2.

Coding strategies of the small (S), medium (M) and large (L) genome segments of viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. Host‐derived transcriptional primers are found at the 5′‐termini of all messenger RNAs (mRNAs). These mRNA species are approximately 100 nucleotides shorter than vRNA at the 3′ end and are not polyadenylated. (a) Three different coding strategies have been described for S genome segments. Viruses in the Hantavirus and Nairovirus genera use a simple negative‐sense strategy to encode their nucleocapsid protein (N). Some hantaviruses also possess an overlapping reading frame within the coding sequence for N suggesting that they too may encode an NSS protein. Viruses in the Orthobunyavirus genus encode N and NSS in overlapping reading frames of the complementary RNA (cRNA). A single mRNA is believed to code for both proteins. Viruses in the Phlebovirus and Tospovirus genera use an ambisense strategy to encode their N in the viral cRNA and an NSS protein in the vRNA. (b) All viruses encode their envelope glycoproteins (GN and GC) in a continuous open reading frame in the cRNA. The GN/GC polyprotein precursor is cleaved cotranslationally. In the Hantavirus genus, viruses only encode the envelope glycoproteins whereas those in all other genera encode nonstructural (NSM) proteins as well. In the genera Orthobunyavirus and Nairovirus, NSM is encoded between GN and GC. Phleboviruses (with the exception of UUKV) encode an NSM located N‐terminally to GN and GC that is generated through utilization of an alternative translation initiation site. RVFV also encodes a 78‐kDa nonstructural protein that includes the sequence of both NSM and GN. Nairovirus (e.g. CCHFV) glycoproteins are generated from intermediate precursors termed PreGN and PreGC. In addition, nairoviruses encoded secreted nonstructural proteins at the N‐terminus of PreGN that are generated by endoproteolytic cleavage. Viruses in the Tospovirus genus encode an NSM protein, believed to be a ‘movement protein’ by ambisense coding. (c) Viruses in all genera encode a single protein (L polymerase) in the L segment cRNA. Diagrams are not drawn to scale.

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Further Reading

Clements AC, Pfeiffer DU, Martin V and Otte MJ (2007) A Rift Valley fever atlas for Africa. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 82: 72–82.

Ergonul O (2008) Treatement of Crimean‐Congo hemorrhagic fever. Antiviral Research 78: 125–131.

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Martin V, Chevalier V, Ceccato P et al. (2008) The impact of climate change on the epidemiology and control of Rift Valley fever. Revue Scientifique Et Technique 27: 413–426.

Morikawa S, Saijo M and Kurane I (2007) Recent progress in molecular biology of Crimean‐Congo hemorrhagic fever. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 30: 375–389.

Vaheri A, Vapalahti O and Plyusnin A (2008) How to diagnose hantavirus infections and detect them in rodents and insectivores. Reviews in Medical Virology 18: 277–288.

Vorou R, Pierroutsakos IN and Maltezou HC (2007) Crimean‐Congo hemorrhagic fever. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 20: 495–500.

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Taylor, Shannon L, Altamura, Louis A, and Schmaljohn, Connie S(Mar 2009) Bunyaviridae. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001012.pub2]