The flaviviruses are a group of medically important viruses that are mainly transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks; they include dengue, Japanese encephalitis, St Louis encephalitis, tick‐borne encephalitis, West Nile and yellow fever species.

Keywords: yellow fever; Japanese encephalitis; dengue; arbovirus

Figure 1.

Organization of the flavivirus genome and expression of proteins (genes are not drawn to scale). NCR, noncoding region; NS, nonstructural; NTPase, nucleoside triphosphatase. NS3′ and NS3′′ have been identified in virus‐infected cells but, to date, have not been demonstrated to have functional helicase and/or NTPase activity.



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Further Reading

Barrett PN, Dorner F and Plotkin SA (1998) Tick‐borne encephalitis vaccine. In: Plotkin SA and Orenstein WA (eds) Vaccines, 3rd edn, pp. 767–780. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Gubler DJ and Kuno G (eds) (1997) Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Monath TP (ed.) (1988) The Arboviruses: Ecology and Epidemiology, vols 1–5. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Monath TP (1998) Yellow fever. In: Plotkin SA and Orenstein WA (eds) Vaccines, 3rd edn, pp. 815–879. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Monath TP and Heinz FX (1996) Flaviviruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe BM, Howley PM et al. (eds) Fields Virology, 3rd edn, pp. 961–1034. Philadelphia: Lippincott‐Raven

Peters CJ (1997) Viral haemorrhagic fevers. In: Nathanson N (ed‐in‐chief) Viral Pathogenesis, pp. 779–799. Philadelphia: Lippincott‐Raven.

Rice CM (1996) Flaviviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Fields BN, Knipe BM, Howley PM et al. (eds) Fields Virology, 3rd edn, pp. 931–960. Philadelphia: Lippincott‐Raven.

Tsai TF, Chang G‐JJ and Yu YX (1998) Japanese encephalitis vaccines. In: Plotkin SA and Orenstein WA (eds) Vaccines, 3rd edn, pp. 672–710. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Weaver SC (1997) Vector biology in virus pathogenesis. In: Nathanson N (ed‐in‐chief) Viral Pathogenesis, pp. 329–352. Philadelphia: Lippincott‐Raven.

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Barrett, Alan DT(Apr 2001) Flaviviruses. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0001023]