Rhabdoviruses

Abstract

The family Rhabdoviridae belongs within the order Mononegavirales, and is made up of six different genera: the Vesiculoviruses, the Ephemeroviruses, the Lyssaviruses, the Cytorhabdoviruses, the Nucleorhabdoviruses and the Novirhabdoviruses. Alongside these virus groups numerous other viruses await classification into this family. Rhabdovirus virions contain a nonsegmented negative‐sense single‐stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome encoding five proteins: the nucleocapsid protein (N), the phosphoprotein (P), the matrix protein (M), the glycoprotein (G) and the RNA‐dependent RNA polymerase protein (L), and typically have a distinctive bullet shape. This diverse group of over 165 viruses can infect a range of species including mammals, reptiles, birds, fish, insects and plants. Several of these viruses cause notable economic losses to both the agriculture and aquaculture sector. However, only the lyssaviruses and the vesiculoviruses are able to infect both animals and humans to cause clinical disease, with rabies virus being the most significant human pathogen.

Key Concepts:

  • Only the lyssaviruses and the vesiculoviruses are able to infect both animals and humans to cause clinical diseases.

  • Rabies is one of the most deadly infectious diseases known today with a case‐fatality rate approaching 100%.

  • Rabies virus is the most notable human pathogen.

  • Virions are bullet‐shaped and consist of an envelope, covered with peplomers surrounding a helically coiled cylindrical nucleocapsid.

  • The genome consists of a single molecule of linear negative‐sense, single‐stranded RNA, 13–16 kb in size.

  • The Rhabdoviridae are a diverse group of highly adaptable viruses with a broad host range.

Keywords: nonsegmented; negative‐sense single‐stranded RNA; Rhabdoviridae; genomes; bullet‐shaped envelope; rabies virus

Figure 1.

Genome organisation within the Rhabdoviridae family. Gene ORF sizes (the abbreviations for which are detailed in the text) are not shown to scale, and the total genome length has been standardised. Genome lengths and an example virus are also stated next to genome schematics, extra genes are highlighted in green. © UK Crown Copyright.

Figure 2.

(a) A pictorial representation of RABV, adapted from image designed by A R Fooks, VLA and produced by A Featherstone, Research Graphix, UK. (b) Electron micrograph 200 000 × magnification (negative staining) of RABV (reproduced with kind permission from Bill Cooley, AHVLA). (c) Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) budding from membranes of cells grown in culture. Reproduced with kind permission from the EM unit, CEFAS. © UK Crown Copyright.

close

References

Ahne W, Bjorklund HV, Essbauer S et al. (2002) Spring viremia of carp (SVC). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 52(3): 261–272.

Albertini AA, Baquero E, Ferlin A and Gaudin Y (2012) Molecular and cellular aspects of rhabdovirus entry. Viruses 4(1): 117–139.

Albertini AA, Ruigrok RW and Blondel D (2011) Rabies virus transcription and replication. Advances in Virus Research 79: 1–22.

Ammayappan A and Vakharia VN (2011) Nonvirion protein of novirhabdovirus suppresses apoptosis at the early stage of virus infection. Journal of Virology 85(16): 8393–8402.

Bandyopadhyay A, Kopperud K, Anderson G, Martin K and Goodin M (2010) An integrated protein localization and interaction map for Potato yellow dwarf virus, type species of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus. Virology 402(1): 61–71.

Blasdell KR, Voysey R, Bulach DM et al. (2012a) Malakal virus from Africa and Kimberley virus from Australia are geographic variants of a widely distributed ephemerovirus. Virology 433(1): 236–244. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2012.08.008.

Blasdell KR, Voysey R, Bulach D et al. (2012b) Kotonkan and Obodhiang viruses: African ephemeroviruses with large and complex genomes. Virology 425(2): 143–153.

CDC (2011) The Rabies Virus. http://www.cdc.gov/rabies/transmission/virus.html

Charlton KM, Nadin‐Davis S, Casey GA and Wandeler AI (1997) The long incubation period in rabies: delayed progression of infection in muscle at the site of exposure. Acta Neuropathologica 94(1): 73–77.

Coll JM and INIA (1995) The glycoprotein G of rhabdoviruses. Archives of Virology 140(5): 827–851.

Dietzgen RG (2012) Morphology, genome organization, transcription and replication of rhabdoviruses. In: Dietzgen RG and Kuzmin IV (eds) Rhabdoviruses – Molecular Taxonomy, Evolution, Genomics, Ecology, Host–Vector Interactions, Cytopathology and Control, pp. 5–11. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press.

Dietzschold B and Koprowski H (2004) Rabies transmission from organ transplants in the USA. Lancet 364(9435): 648–649.

Freuling CM, Beer M, Conraths FJ et al. (2011) Novel lyssavirus in Natterer's bat, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17(8): 1519–1522.

Finke S and Conzelmann KK (2005) Recombinant rhabdoviruses: Vectors for vaccine development and gene therapy. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 292: 165–200.

Geisbert TW and Feldmann H (2011) Recombinant Vesicular stomatitis virus‐based vaccines against Ebola and Marburg virus infections. Journal of Infectious Diseases 204(suppl. 3): S1075–S1081.

Gomez‐Casado E, Estepa A and Coll JM (2011) A comparative review on European‐farmed finfish RNA viruses and their vaccines. Vaccine 29(15): 2657–2671.

Gubala A (2012) Recent advances in the characterization of animal Rhabdoviruses. In: Dietzgen RG and Kuzmin IV (eds) Rhabdoviruses – Molecular Taxonomy, Evolution, Genomics, Ecology, Host–Vector Interactions, Cytopathology and Control, pp. 165–203. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press.

Hastie E and Grdzelishvili VZ (2012) Vesicular stomatitis virus as a flexible platform for oncolytic virotherapy against cancer. The Journal of General Virology 93(Pt 12): 2529–2545.

Hellenbrand W, Meyer C, Rasch G, Steffens I and Ammon A (2005) Cases of rabies in Germany following organ transplantation. European Surveillance 10(2): E050224.6.

ICTVdB Management (2006) 01.062. Rhabdoviridae. In: Büchen‐Osmond C (ed.) ICTVdB – The Universal Virus Database, version 3. New York, USA: Columbia University.

Johnson MC, Maxwell JM, Loh PC and Leong JA (1999) Molecular characterization of the glycoproteins from two warm water rhabdoviruses: snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) and rhabdovirus of penaeid shrimp (RPS)/spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Virus Research 64(2): 95–106.

Lafon M (2005) Rabies virus receptors. Journal of Neurovirology 11(1): 82–87.

Leung AK, Davies HD and Hon KL (2007) Rabies: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and prophylaxis. Advances in Therapy 24(6): 1340–1347.

Longden B, Wlfert L and Jiggins FM (2012) The sigma viruses of Drosophila. In: Dietzgen RG and Kuzmin IV (eds) Rhabdoviruses – Molecular Taxonomy, Evolution, Genomics, Ecology, Host–Vector Interactions, Cytopathology and Control, pp. 117–132. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press.

Marston DA, Horton DL, Ngeleja C et al. (2012) Ikoma Lyssavirus, highly divergent novel Lyssavirus in an African civet. Emerging Infectious Diseases 18(4): 664–667.

Marston DA, McElhinney LM, Johnson N et al. (2007) Comparative analysis of the full genome sequence of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 and type 2 with other Lyssaviruses and evidence for a conserved transcription termination and polyadenylation motif in the G‐L 3′ non‐translated region. Journal of General Virology 88(Pt 4): 1302–1314.

Marriott AC and Easton AJ (1999) Reverse genetics of the Paramyxoviridae. Advances in Virus Research 53: 321–340.

Martin KM, Dietzgen RG, Wang R and Goodin MM (2012) Lettuce necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus protein localization and interaction map, and comparison with nucleorhabdoviruses. Journal of General Virology 93(Pt 4): 906–914.

Mebatsion T, Weiland F and Conzelmann KK (1999) Matrix protein of rabies virus is responsible for the assembly and budding of bullet‐shaped particles and interacts with the transmembrane spike glycoprotein G. Journal of Virology 73(1): 242–250.

Messenger SL, Smith JS and Rupprecht CE (2002) Emerging epidemiology of bat‐associated cryptic cases of rabies in humans in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases 35(6): 738–747.

Pringle CR and Easton AJ (1997) Monopartite negative strand RNA genomes. Seminars in Virology 8: 49–57.

Redinbaugh MG and Hogenhout SA (2005) Plant rhabdoviruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 292: 143–163.

Rodriguez LL and Pauszek SJ (2012) Genus vesiculovirus. In: Dietzgen RG and Kuzmin IV (eds) Rhabdoviruses – Molecular Taxonomy, Evolution, Genomics, Ecology, Host–Vector Interactions, Cytopathology and Control, pp. 23–35. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press.

Sun Y, Yue Z, Liu H et al. (2010) Development and evaluation of a sensitive and quantitative assay for hirame rhabdovirus based on quantitative RT‐PCR. Journal of Virological Methods 169(2): 391–396.

Tsiang H, Derer M and Taxi J (1983) An in vivo and in vitro study of rabies virus infection of the rat superior cervical ganglia. Archives of Virology 76(3): 231–243.

Vodopija I and Clark HF (1991) Human vaccination against rabies. In: Baer GM (ed.) The Natural History of Rabies, 2nd edn. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Walker PJ, Dietzgen RG, Joubert DA and Blasdell KR (2011) Rhabdovirus accessory genes. Virus Research 162(1–2): 110–125.

Walker PJ and Kongsuwan K (1999) Deduced structural model for animal rhabdovirus glycoproteins. Journal of General Virology 80(Pt 5): 1211–1220.

Wertz GW, Perepelitsa VP and Ball LA (1998) Gene rearrangement attenuates expression and lethality of a nonsegmented negative strand RNA virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 95: 3501–3506.

Whelan SP, Barr JN and Wertz GW (2004) Transcription and replication of nonsegmented negative‐strand RNA viruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 283: 61–119.

Wuner H (2007) Rabies virus. In: Jackson AC and Wunner WH (eds) Rabies, 2nd edn, pp. 23–69. UK: Academic Press.

Further Reading

Baer GM (1994) Rabies – An historical perspective. Infectious Agents and Disease 3: 168–180.

Dietzgen RG and Kuzmin IV (2012) Rhabdoviruses: Molecular Taxonomy, Evolution, Genomics, Ecology, Host–Vector Interactions, Cyropathology and Control. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press.

Flint SJ, Enquist LW, Racaniello VR and Skalka AM (2003) Principles of Virology, 2nd edn. Washington, DC: ASM Press.

Jackson AC and Wunner WH (2007) Rabies, 2nd edn. UK: Elsevier – Academic Press.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Healy, Derek M, Banyard, Ashley C, and Fooks, Anthony R(May 2013) Rhabdoviruses. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001085.pub3]