Karyotype Analysis and Chromosome Banding

Abstract

A series of reproducible bands across metaphase chromosomes can be revealed by some treatments. These chromosome bands not only allow the identification of normal and abnormal chromosomes but they also tell us about fundamental aspects of the chromatin structure and compartmentalization of the genome.

Keywords: G/R bands; heterochromatin; replication; gene distribution; chromatin domains

Figure 1.

G‐band ideograms of human chromosome 11 at (from left to right) 350, 550 and 850 band resolution.

Figure 2.

DAPI‐stained chromosomes from mouse embryonic stem cells (male). The staining approximates to a G‐band pattern, with the C‐ and G‐bands stained more intensely by DAPI than the R‐bands. The constitutive heterochromatin around the centromeres of these acrocentric chromosomes stains very intensely with DAPI.

Figure 3.

The location of CpG islands in the human karyotype. Left‐hand chromosome of each set: CpG islands (red) painted by FISH onto human metaphase chromosomes that have been replication banded so that the G (late replicating)‐bands are green (sites of BrdU incorporation). Right‐hand chromosome of each set DAPI‐stained (blue) chromosomes with a late‐replication banding pattern (green).

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References

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Further Reading

Craig JM and Bickmore WA (1993) Chromosome bands ‐ flavours to savour. BioEssays 15: 349–354.

Craig JM and Bickmore WA (1997) Chromosome Bands: Patterns in the Genome. Heidelberg: Springer‐Verlag.

Gosden JR (1994) Chromosome analysis protocols. In: Walker JM (ed.) Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 29. Totawa: Humana Press.

Mitelman F (ed.) (1995) An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Basel: S Karger.

Sumner AT (1990) Chromosome Banding. London: Unwin Hyman.

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How to Cite close
Bickmore, Wendy A(Apr 2001) Karyotype Analysis and Chromosome Banding. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0001160]