Gene Duplication and Redundancy


Gene duplications create one or more copies of a gene in a genome. They are important forces of genome evolution which change genome size and lead to the evolution of new gene functions.

Keywords: genome evolution; natural selection; gene knockout

Figure 1.

Gene duplications can occur via (a) unequal crossing‐over or (b) retroposition (see text for details).


Further Reading

Elder JF and Turner BJ (1995) Concerted evolution of repetitive DNA sequences in eukaryotes. Quarterly Review of Biology 70: 297–320.

Hillis DM and Dixon MT (1991) Ribosomal DNA: molecular evolution and phylogenetic inference. Quarterly Review of Biology 66: 410–453.

Li W‐H (1997) Molecular Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.

Liao DQ (2000) Gene conversion drives within genic sequences: concerted evolution of ribosomal RNA genes in bacteria and archaea. Journal of Molecular Evolution 51: 305–317.

Lynch M and Conery JS (2000) The evolutionary fate and consequences of duplicate genes. Science 290: 1151–1155.

Ohno S (1970) Evolution by Gene Duplication. New York: Springer.

Romero D and Palacios R (1997) Gene amplification and genomic plasticity in prokaryotes. Annual Review of Genetics 31: 91–111.

Saks ME, Sampson JR and Abelson J (1998) Evolution of a transfer RNA gene through a point mutation in the anticodon. Science 279: 1665–1670.

Wagner A (1999) Redundant gene functions and natural selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12: 1–16.

Wagner A (2000) Mutational robustness in genetic networks of yeast. Nature Genetics 24: 355–361.

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How to Cite close
Wagner, Andreas(Feb 2003) Gene Duplication and Redundancy. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0001163]