Autoimmune Arthritis: Animal Models

Abstract

Animal models are used for the study of a number of human autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosis and spondyloarthropathies. Induced, spontaneous and genetically manipulated animal models can be described in terms of their parallels to human disease and as valuable tools for the development of potential therapies. Studies in animal models have led to a number of important discoveries, which have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, including the roles played by regulatory T cells and TH17 cells. In addition, important therapeutic advances have emerged as a result of studies of immune intervention in animal models of autoimmunity. For example, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blocking drugs, which are widely used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, were developed following pre‐clinical testing in animal models.

Key Concepts

  • Animal models may be either spontaneously occurring or induced as a result of genetic manipulation, immunisation with a self‐antigen or triggered by pathogen‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in genetically susceptible hosts.
  • No animal model completely mimics human disease.
  • Animal models can be used to delineate common mammalian immunological mechanisms, test novel therapeutic concepts and understand mechanisms of drug action, but therapeutic efficacy therein is not predictive of response in clinical trials.
  • The use of transgenic and knockout strains facilitates the identification of key genes that contribute to disease susceptibility and pathogenesis.

Keywords: animal models; rheumatoid arthritis; spondyloarthropathy; ankylosing spondylitis; collagen‐induced arthritis; SKG

Figure 1. Collagen‐induced arthritis. (a) Normal proximal interphalangeal joint. (b) Inflammation and joint erosion in DBA/1 mouse 10 days after onset of arthritis. Haematoxylin and eosin.
Figure 2. Joint damage in human TNFα‐transgenic mice. Note the focal erosion of subchondral bone. Haematoxylin and eosin.
Figure 3. Inflammatory infiltrate in the spine is observed in curdlan‐challenged SKG mice.
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Further Reading

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McCann, Fiona E, and Wythe, Sarah E(Oct 2015) Autoimmune Arthritis: Animal Models. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001436.pub3]