Ctenophora (Sea Walnuts and Comb Jellies)


The Ctenophora are a small group of marine invertebrates most of whom have eight longitudinal rows of fused macrocilia, called comb rows, which they use to propel themselves through the water.

Keywords: invertebrates; zooplankton; coelenterata; morphology; systematics

Figure 1.

The lobate ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, illustrating the body plan of ctenophores. Bar, 1 cm. Abbreviations: aur, auricle; inf, infundibulum; mo, mouth; ol, oral lobe; sto, stomodaeum; sscr, substomodaeal comb row; stcr, subtentacular comb row.


Further Reading

Conway Morris S and Collins DH (1996) Middle Cambrian ctenophores from the Stephen Formation, British Columbia, Canada. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 351: 279–308.

Harbison GR (1982) On the classification and evolution of the Ctenophora. In: Conway Morris S, George JD, Gibson R and Platt HM (eds) The Origins and Relationships of Lower Invertebrates. Systematics Association, Special Volume 28, pp. 78–100. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Harbison GR, Madin LP and Swanberg NR (1978) On the natural history and distribution of oceanic ctenophores. Deep‐Sea Research 25: 233–256.

Harbison GR and Miller RL (1986) Not all ctenophores are hermaphrodites. Studies on the systematics, distribution, sexuality and development of two species of Ocyropsis. Marine Biology 90: 413–424.

Hyman LH (1940) The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora. New York: McGraw‐Hill.

Tamm SL (1982) Ctenophora. In: Shelton GAB (ed.) Electrical Conduction and Behaviour in ‘Simple’ Invertebrates. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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How to Cite close
Harbison, GR(Apr 2001) Ctenophora (Sea Walnuts and Comb Jellies). In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0001584]