Neogene Time Scale

Abstract

The Neogene Period/System (approximately the past 24 million years) is the younger of a twofold subdivision of the Cenozoic Era which includes as its lower component the Palaeogene Period/System (65–24 Ma). It includes the Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene (and in some sources Holocene) Epochs/Series.

Keywords: neogene; geochronology; chronostratigraphy; biostratigraphy; magnetostratigraphy; astrochronology

Figure 1.

A history of terminology associated with the development of a hierarchical scheme of Cenozoic chronostratigraphy. Reprinted from Berggren (1998) Figure 1, with kind permission of the Geological Society Publishing House.

Figure 2.

An integrated magnetobiochronological scale (IMBS) for the early Miocene. Biostratigraphic zones based on a succession of calcareous microplankton taxa are shown in the right half of the figure. Their boundaries are correlated to the standard chronostratigraphic subdivisions of the lower Miocene and a chronology of the biostratigraphic zones and chronostratigraphy is derived by correlation to the global polarity scale at the left. Further details on the method by which this time scale has been developed are given in Berggren et al. (1995a). Reprinted from Berggren et al., (1995), Figure 4, with kind permission of the SEPM, Tulsa, OK.

Figure 3.

An integrated magnetobiochronological scale (IMBS) for the middle–late Miocene. See Figure for further explanation. Reprinted from Berggren et al., 1995, Figure 5, with kind permission of SEPM, Tulsa, OK.

Figure 4.

An integrated magnetobiochronological scale (IMBS) for the Pliocene–Pleistocene. See Figure for further explanation. Reprinted from Berggren et al., (1995), Figure 6, with kind permission of SEPM, Tulsa, OK.

close

References

Berggren WA (1998) The Cenozoic Era: Lyellian (chrono)‐stratigraphy and nomenclatural reform at the millennium. In: Blundell DL and Scott AC (eds) Lyell: The Past is the Key to the Present, Geological Society Special Publication 143, pp. 111–131. London: Geological Society.

Berggren WA, Kent DV, Swisher CC III and Aubry M‐P (1995a) A revised Cenozoic geochronology and chronostratigraphy. In: Berggren WA, Kent DV, Aubry M‐P and Hardenbol J (eds) Geochronology, Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation, SEPM Special Publication 54, pp. 129–212. Tulsa, OK: SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Berggren WA, Hilgen FJ, Langereis CG et al. (1995b) Late Neogene chronology: new perspectives in high‐resolution stratigraphy. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 107: 1272–1287.

Beyrich E (1854) Über die Stellung der hessisichen Tertiärbildungen. Verhandlungen Köngliche Presussischen Akademie Wissenschaft Berlin, Monatsberichtungen November: 640–666.

Desnoyers J (1829) Observations sur un ensemble de dépots marins plus récentsque les terrains tertiares du bassin de la Seine, et constituant une formation géologique distincte: précedées d'un aperçu de la nonsimultanéité des bassins tertiares. Annales Scientifique Naturelles 16: 171–214, 402–419.

Hilgen FJ, Krijgsman W, Langereis CG, Santarelli A and Zachariasse WJ (1995) Extending the astronomical (polarity) time scale into the Miocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 136: 495–510.

Hilgen FJ, Krijgsman W, Langereis CG and Lourens LJ (1997) Breakthrough made in dating of the geological record. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 78 (28): 285, 288–289.

Hsu KJ (1983) The Mediterranean Was a Desert. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Montanari A, Odin GS and Coccioni R (eds) (1997) Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy, vol. 15: Miocene Stratigraphy: An Integrated Approach. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Philips J (1840) Palaeozoic series. In: Long G (ed) The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, vol. 17, pp. 153–154. London: Charles Knight.

Steininger FF, Iaccarino S and Cati F (eds) (1996) In search of the Palaeogene/Neogene boundary. Part 3: The global stratotype section and point; The GSSP for the base of the Neogene (the Palaeogene/Neogene boundary). Giornale di geologia, Series 3 58 (1/2): 3–192.

Tattersall I (1993) The Human Odyssey: Four Million Years of Human Evolution. New York: Prentice Hall.

Van Couvering JA (ed.) (1996) World and Regional Geology, vol. 9: The Pleistocene Boundary and the Beginning of the Quaternary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Webb SD (1985) Late Cenozoic mammal dispersal between the Americas. In: Stehli FG and Webb SD (eds) The Great American Biotic Interchange, pp. 357–380. New York: Plenum Press.

Further Reading

Bernor RL, Fahlbusch V and Mittmann H‐W (eds) (1995) The Evolution of Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. New York: Columbia University Press.

Cowen R (1995) History of Life, 2nd edn, chaps 18–22, pp. 345–452. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publishers.

Hilgen FJ (1991a) Astronomical calibration of Gauss to Matuyama sapropels in the Mediterranean and implication for the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 104: 226–244.

Hilgen FJ (1991b) Extension of the astronomically calibrated (polarity) time scale to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 107: 349–368.

Kennett JP (ed.) (1985) The Miocene Ocean: Paleoceanography & Biogeography, MWR163. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America.

Saito T and Burckle LH (eds) (1975) Late Neogene Epoch Boundaries. American Museum of Natural History, New York: Micropaleontology Press.

Stehli FG and Webb SD (1985) The Great American Biotic Interchange. New York: Plenum Press.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Berggren, William A(Apr 2001) Neogene Time Scale. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0001620]