Neogene Time Scale


The Neogene Period/System (approximately the past 24 million years) is the younger of a twofold subdivision of the Cenozoic Era which includes as its lower component the Palaeogene Period/System (65–24 Ma). It includes the Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene (and in some sources Holocene) Epochs/Series.

Keywords: neogene; geochronology; chronostratigraphy; biostratigraphy; magnetostratigraphy; astrochronology

Figure 1.

A history of terminology associated with the development of a hierarchical scheme of Cenozoic chronostratigraphy. Reprinted from Berggren (1998) Figure 1, with kind permission of the Geological Society Publishing House.

Figure 2.

An integrated magnetobiochronological scale (IMBS) for the early Miocene. Biostratigraphic zones based on a succession of calcareous microplankton taxa are shown in the right half of the figure. Their boundaries are correlated to the standard chronostratigraphic subdivisions of the lower Miocene and a chronology of the biostratigraphic zones and chronostratigraphy is derived by correlation to the global polarity scale at the left. Further details on the method by which this time scale has been developed are given in Berggren et al. (1995a). Reprinted from Berggren et al., (1995), Figure 4, with kind permission of the SEPM, Tulsa, OK.

Figure 3.

An integrated magnetobiochronological scale (IMBS) for the middle–late Miocene. See Figure for further explanation. Reprinted from Berggren et al., 1995, Figure 5, with kind permission of SEPM, Tulsa, OK.

Figure 4.

An integrated magnetobiochronological scale (IMBS) for the Pliocene–Pleistocene. See Figure for further explanation. Reprinted from Berggren et al., (1995), Figure 6, with kind permission of SEPM, Tulsa, OK.



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Further Reading

Bernor RL, Fahlbusch V and Mittmann H‐W (eds) (1995) The Evolution of Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. New York: Columbia University Press.

Cowen R (1995) History of Life, 2nd edn, chaps 18–22, pp. 345–452. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publishers.

Hilgen FJ (1991a) Astronomical calibration of Gauss to Matuyama sapropels in the Mediterranean and implication for the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 104: 226–244.

Hilgen FJ (1991b) Extension of the astronomically calibrated (polarity) time scale to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 107: 349–368.

Kennett JP (ed.) (1985) The Miocene Ocean: Paleoceanography & Biogeography, MWR163. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America.

Saito T and Burckle LH (eds) (1975) Late Neogene Epoch Boundaries. American Museum of Natural History, New York: Micropaleontology Press.

Stehli FG and Webb SD (1985) The Great American Biotic Interchange. New York: Plenum Press.

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How to Cite close
Berggren, William A(Apr 2001) Neogene Time Scale. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0001620]