Human Population Genetics: Drift and Migration

Abstract

Genetic drift is the effect of changes in genetic composition of a finite population, due to random replacement of alleles from one generation to the next. Migration effect specifies alterations caused by exchange of genes between populations.

Keywords: random genetic drift; gene flow; fixation index; effective population size; gene diversity; founder effect; human genome diversity

References

Bernstein F (1931) Die geographische Verteilung der Blutgruppen und ihre anthropologische Bedeutung. In: Comitato Italiano per lo Studio dei Problemi della Populazione, pp. 227–243. Rome: Instituto Poligrafico dello Stato.

Cavalli‐Sforza LL, Menozzi P and Piazza A (1994) The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Chakraborty R (1976) Culture, language and geographic variability in Andean highland Indians. Nature 264: 350–352.

Chakraborty R (1986) Gene admixture in human populations: models and predictions. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 29: 1–43.

Chakraborty R and Nei M (1974) Dynamics of gene differentiation between incompletely isolated populations of unequal sizes. Theoretical Population Biology 5: 460–469.

Chakraborty R and Rao CR (1991) Measurement of genetic variation for evolutionary studies. In: Rao CR and Chakraborty R (eds) Handbook of Statistics, vol. 8: Statistical Methods for Biological and Medical Sciences, pp. 203–254. New York: North Holland.

Chakraborty R and Weiss KM (1988) Admixture as a tool for finding linked genes and detecting that difference from allelic association between loci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 85: 9119–9123.

Chakraborty R, Kamboh MI and Ferrell RE (1991) ‘Unique’ alleles in admixed populations: a strategy for determining ‘hereditary’ population differences of disease frequencies. Ethnicity and Disease 1: 245–256.

Cockerham CC (1984) Drift and mutation with a finite number of allelic states. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 81: 530–534.

Crow JF and Aoki K (1984) Group selection for a polygenic behavioral trait: estimating the degree of population subdivision. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 81: 6073–6077.

Fisher RA (1930) The distribution of gene ratios for rare mutations. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Edinburgh 50: 205–220.

Kimura M (1955) Solution of a process of random genetic drift with a continuous model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 41: 144–150.

Kimura M and Crow JF (1963) The measurement of effective population number. Evolution 17: 279–288.

Kimura M and Weiss GH (1964) The stepping stone model of population structure and the decrease of genetic correlation with distance. Genetics 49: 561–576.

Kingman JFC (1982) Exchangeability and the evolution of large populations. In: Koch G and Spizzichino F (eds) Exchangeability in Probability and Statistics, pp. 97–112. Amsterdam: North‐Holland.

Landsteiner K (1901) Uber Agglutinationserscheinungen normalen menschlichen. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 14: 1132–1134.

Li WH (1976) Effect of migration on genetic distance. American Naturalist 110: 841–847.

Malécot G (1966) Probabilités et Hérédité. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Neel JV (1973) ‘Private’ genetic variants and the frequency of mutation among South American Indians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 70: 3311–3315.

Neel JV and Weiss KM (1975) The genetic structure of tribal population, the Yanomama Indians. XII. Biodemographic studies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 42: 25–52.

Nei M and Li WH (1973) Linkage disequilibrium in subdivided populations. Genetics 73: 213–219.

Nei M and Roychoudhury AK (1993) Evolutionary relationships of human populations on a global scale. Molecular Biology and Evolution 10: 927–943.

Polanski A, Kimmel M and Chakraborty R (1998) Application of a time‐dependent coalescence process for inferring the history of size changes from DNA sequence data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 95: 5455–5461.

Reed TE (1973) Number of gene loci required for accurate estimation of ancestral population proportions in individual human hybrids. Nature 244: 575–576.

Roychoudhury AK and Nei M (1988) Human Polymorphic Genes: World Distribution. New York: Oxford University Press.

Shriver MD, Smith MW, Jin L et al. (1997) Ethnic‐affiliation estimation by use of population‐specific DNA markers. American Journal of Human Genetics 60: 957–964.

Sokal RR, Oden NL and Wilson C (1991) Genetic evidence for the spread of agriculture in Europe by demic diffusion. Nature 351: 143–145.

Stephens JC, Briscoe D and O'Brien SJ (1994) Mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium in human populations; limits and guidelines. American Journal of Human Genetics 55: 809–824.

Wang DG, Fan JB, Siao CJ et al. (1998) Large‐scale identification, mapping, and genotyping of single‐nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genome. Science 280: 1077–1082.

Wright S (1931) Evolution in Mendelian populations. Genetics 16: 97–159.

Wright S (1943) Isolation by distance. Genetics 28: 114–138.

Wright S (1951) The genetic structure of populations. Annals of Eugenics 15: 323–354.

Further Reading

Cavalli‐Sforza LL and Bodmer WF (1971) The Genetics of Human Populations. San Francisco: Freeman.

Crow JF and Kimura M (1970) An Introduction to Population Genetics Theory. New York: Harper and Row.

Handley LJ, Manica A, Goudet J and Balloux F (2007) Going the distance: human population genetics in a clinal world. Trends in Genetics 23: 432–439.

Liu H, Prugnolle F, Manica A and Balloux F (2006) A geographically explicit genetic model of worldwide human‐settlement history. American Journal of Human Genetics 79: 230–237.

Nei M (1987) Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. New York: Columbia University Press.

Ramachandran S, Deshpande O, Roseman CC et al. (2005) Support from the relationship of genetic and geographic distance in human populations for a serial founder effect originating in Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102: 15942–15947.

Reed FA and Tishkoff SA (2006) African human diversity, origins and migrations. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 16: 597–605.

Sokal RR (1991) Ancient movement patterns determine modern genetic variances in Europe. Human Biology 63: 589–606.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Chakraborty, Ranajit(Jul 2008) Human Population Genetics: Drift and Migration. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001786.pub2]