Osmoregulation by Vertebrates in Aquatic Environments
David H Evans, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
Published online: March 2003
Because the salt concentration of the body fluids of aquatic
vertebrates differs from that of their freshwater or marine environment, they
face net movements of water and salt across their permeable membranes, most
notably the gill. Various organs and transport processes are involved in
maintaining internal consistency in the face of these potential osmotic and
Keywords: osmoregulation; vertebrates; fishes; amphibians; reptiles; birds; mammals
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