Coordination and Integration in Vertebrates: Overview


Integration is the process of combining parts to create a coordinated, or integrated, whole; it is found at all levels of organization of living matter. Every biological function is the expression of some sort of integration of parts, which allows the complexity of a system to grow and new properties to emerge.

Keywords: cell junctions; desmosomes; synapses; central nervous system; autonomic nervous system; fight‐or‐flight response; endocrine system; sympathetic nerves

Further Reading

Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J et al. (1994) Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland.

Nilsson S and Holmgren S (1994) Comparative Physiology and Evolution of the Autonomic Nervous System. Chur: Harwood.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Gabella, Giorgio(Apr 2001) Coordination and Integration in Vertebrates: Overview. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0001844]