Cutin and Suberin Polyesters


Cutin and suberin are cell wall‐associated glycerolipid polymers that are specific to plants. Cutin forms the framework of the cuticle sealing the aerial epidermis, while suberin is present in the periderm of barks and underground organs. Suberised walls are also found in the root endodermis. Barriers based on cutin and suberin restrict the transport of water and solutes across cell walls and limit pathogen invasions. Chemical analysis shows that both polymers are polyesters composed mostly of fatty hydroxyacids, diacids and epoxyacids esterified to each other and to glycerol. Suberin, whose best‐known form is cork, usually differs from cutin (which has C16 and C18 fatty acids) by a higher content of C20–C24 aliphatics and aromatics. In the last 10 years, the identification of mutants of Arabidopsis or other model plants affected in cutin and/or suberin content has allowed the construction of a more complete picture of the polyester biosynthesis pathways, which currently include acyltransferases with unique specificities, fatty acid hydroxylases, acyl‐CoA synthetases, fatty acid elongases, fatty acyl‐CoA reductases, feruloyl transferases, ABC transporters and extracellular transacylases.

Key Concepts

  • The epidermal cells of plant aerial organs and periderm/endoderm cells synthesise the protective cell wall lipid polymers cutin and suberin respectively.
  • Cutin and suberin are both polyesters containing glycerol and oxygenated fatty acids.
  • Cutin structure is not completely understood and suberin structure remains controversial.
  • Oxygenated fatty acid monomers are produced by fatty acid oxidases of the cytochrome P450 superfamily.
  • Acylation of oxygenated fatty acids to glycerol is catalysed by special glycerol‐3‐phosphate acyltransferases.
  • Cutin acylglycerol building blocks are exported to the cell wall and polymerised by extracellular transacylases.
  • How suberin precursors are assembled is still unknown.

Keywords: cutin; suberin; polyesters; waxes; oxygenated fatty acids; glycerol‐3‐phosphate acyltransferase; P450 monooxygenase; cuticle; cork; cutin synthase

Figure 1. Localisation and ultrastructure of cutin and suberin layers. Top panel: Schematic representation of the cuticle (left) and suberised cell wall (right). Bottom panel: Observation of cutin and suberin using electron microscope. (a) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of a cross section view of Arabidopsis stem epidermis. Scale bar: 500 nm. (b) A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the epidermal surface of an Arabidopsis sepal. Scale bar: 5 μm. (c) A TEM image of a cross section view of Arabidopsis roots. Scale bar: 100 nm. Adapted from Molina et al., () © American Society of Plant Biologists. Abbreviations: CW, cell wall; PC, peridermal cell.
Figure 2. Structure of the most common monomers of cutin and the major reactions/enzymes involved in their syntheses. In red: enzymes identified; in blue: unknown. Note: substrates are likely to be acyl‐CoAs (R = CoA) but it cannot be ruled out that they are free fatty acids (R = H). DH, dehydrogenase.
Figure 3. A possible structure of a polyester domain. Note: R: other fatty acid or glycerol molecules. Fatty acids and linkages represented are typical of cutins rich in hydroxyacids.
Figure 4. Major biochemical steps identified in cutin/suberin biosynthetic pathways. Abbreviations: ABC transporter, ATP binding cassette transporter; CW, cell wall; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; GPAT, glycerol‐3‐phosphate acyltransferase (with phosphatase activity for cutin‐related members); KCS, ketoacyl‐CoA synthetase; LACS, long chain acyl‐CoA synthetase; PM, plasma membrane.
Figure 5. The regiospecificity of glycerol‐3‐phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) controls the flux of acyl chains to their final site of deposition. Numbering of sn2‐GPATs refers to Arabidopsis GPAT family. Abbreviations: G3P, glycerol‐3‐phosphate; MAG, monoacylglycerol; PA, phosphatidic acid; CW, cell wall; PM, plasma membrane.


Andersen TG, Barberon M and Geldner N (2015) Suberization‐the second life of an endodermal cell. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 28: 9–15.

Barberon M, Vermeer JE, De Bellis D, et al. (2016) Adaptation of root function by nutrient‐induced plasticity of endodermal differentiation. Cell 164: 447–59.

Beisson F, Li Y, Bonaventure G, Pollard M and Ohlrogge JB (2007) The acyltransferase GPAT5 is required for the synthesis of suberin in seed coat and root of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 19: 351–368.

Beisson F, Li‐Beisson Y and Pollard M (2012) Solving the puzzles of cutin and suberin polymer biosynthesis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 15: 329–337.

Bernard A and Joubès J (2013) Arabidopsis cuticular waxes: advances in synthesis, export and regulation. Progress in Lipid Research 52: 110–129.

Bernards MA, Lopez ML, Zajicek J and Lewis NG (1995) Hydroxycinnamic acid‐derived polymers constitute the polyaromatic domain of suberin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270: 7382–7386.

Bernards MA and Lewis NG (1998) The macromolecular aromatic domain in suberized tissue: a changing paradigm. Phytochemistry 47: 915–933.

Bernards MA (2002) Demystifying suberin. Canadian Journal of Botany 80: 227–240.

Bessire M, Borel S, Fabre G, et al. (2011) A member of the PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE family of ATP binding cassette transporters is required for the formation of a functional cuticle in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 23: 1958–1970.

Bird D, Beisson F, Brigham A, et al. (2007) Characterization of Arabidopsis ABCG11/WBC11, an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is required for cuticular lipid secretion. Plant Journal 52: 485–498.

Bonaventure G, Beisson F, Ohlrogge J and Pollard M (2004) Analysis of the aliphatic monomer composition of polyesters associated with Arabidopsis epidermis: occurrence of octadeca‐cis‐6, cis‐9‐diene‐1,18‐dioate as the major component. Plant Journal 40: 920–930.

Chaves I, Pinheiro C, Paiva JA, et al. (2009) Proteomic evaluation of wound‐healing processes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissue. Proteomics 9: 4154–4175.

Chen GX, Komatsuda T, Ma JF, et al. (2011) An ATP‐binding cassette subfamily G full transporter is essential for the retention of leaf water in both wild barley and rice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108: 12354–12359.

Cominelli E, Sala T, Calvi D, Gusmaroli G and Tonelli C (2008) Overexpression of the Arabidopsis AtMYB41 gene alters cell expansion and leaf surface permeability. Plant Journal 53: 53–64.

Compagnon V, Diehl P, Benveniste I, et al. (2009) CYP86B1 is required for very long chain omega‐hydroxyacid and alpha, omega ‐dicarboxylic acid synthesis in root and seed suberin polyester. Plant Physiology 150: 1831–1843.

Debono A, Yeats TH, Rose JK, et al. (2009) Arabidopsis LTPG is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol‐anchored lipid transfer protein required for export of lipids to the plant surface. Plant Cell 21: 1230–1238.

Domergue F, Vishwanath SJ, Joubès J, et al. (2010) Three Arabidopsis fatty acyl‐CoA reductases, FAR1, FAR4, and FAR5, generate primary fatty alcohols associated with suberin deposition. Plant Physiology 153: 1539–1554.

Domínguez E, Heredia‐Guerrero JA and Heredia A (2015) Plant cutin genesis: unanswered questions. Trends in Plant Science 20: 551–558.

Espelie KE, Dean BB and Kolattukudy PE (1979) Composition of lipid‐derived polymers from different anatomical regions of several plant species. Plant Physiology 64: 1089–1093.

Espelie KE, Sadek NZ and Kolattukudy PE (1980) Composition of suberin‐associated waxes from the subterranean storage organs of seven plants, parsnip, carrot, rutabaga, turnip, red beet, sweet potato and potato. Planta 148: 468–476.

Fang X, Qiu F, Yan B, et al. (2001) NMR studies of molecular structure in fruit cuticle polyesters. Phytochemistry 57: 1035–1042.

Franke R, Briesen I, Wojciechowski T, et al. (2005) Apoplastic polyesters in Arabidopsis surface tissues – a typical suberin and a particular cutin. Phytochemistry 66: 2643–2658.

Franke R and Schreiber L (2007) Suberin–a biopolyester forming apoplastic plant interfaces. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 10: 1–8.

Franke R, Höfer R, Briesen I, et al. (2009) The DAISY gene from Arabidopsis encodes a fatty acid elongase condensing enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic suberin in roots and the chalaza‐micropyle region of seeds. Plant Journal 57: 80–95.

Giménez E, Dominguez E, Pineda B, et al. (2015) Transcriptional activity of the MADS box ARLEQUIN/TOMATO AGAMOUS‐LIKE1 gene is required for cuticle development of tomato fruit. Plant Physiology 168: 1036–1048.

Girard AL, Mounet F, Lemaire‐Chamley M, et al. (2012) Tomato GDSL1 is required for cutin deposition in the fruit cuticle. Plant Cell 24: 3119–3134.

Gou JY, Yu XH and Liu CJ (2009) A hydroxycinnamoyltransferase responsible for synthesizing suberin aromatics in Arabidopsis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106: 18855–18860.

Graça J and Pereira H (2000a) Suberin structure in potato periderm: glycerol, long‐chain monomers, and glyceryl and feruloyl dimers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48: 5476–5483.

Graça J and Pereira H (2000b) Diglycerol alkenedioates in suberin: building units of a poly(acylglycerol) polyester. Biomacromolecules 1: 519–522.

Graça J, Schreiber L, Rodrigues J and Pereira H (2002) Glycerol and glyceryl esters of omega‐hydroxyacids in cutins. Phytochemistry 61: 205–215.

Graça J and Santos S (2007) Suberin: a biopolyester of plants' skin. Macromolecular Bioscience 7: 128–135.

Graça J (2015) Suberin: the biopolyester at the frontier of plants. Frontiers in Chemistry 3: 62.

Graça J, Cabral V, Santos S, et al. (2015) Partial depolymerization of genetically modified potato tuber periderm reveals intermolecular linkages in suberin polyester. Phytochemistry 117: 209–219.

Guzmán P, Graça J, Cabral V, Gil L and Fernández V (2016) The presence of cutan limits the interpretation of cuticular chemistry and structure: Ficus elastica leaf as an example. Physiologia Plantarum. DOI: 10.1111/ppl.12414.

Heredia A (2003) Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of cutin, a plant barrier biopolymer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1620: 1–7.

Hoffmann‐Benning S and Kende H (1994) Cuticle biosynthesis in rapidly growing internodes of deepwater rice. Plant Physiology 104: 719–723.

Höfer R, Briesen I, Beck M, et al. (2008) The Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 CYP86A1 encodes a fatty acid omega‐hydroxylase involved in suberin monomer biosynthesis. Journal of Experimental Botany 59: 2347–2360.

Jakobson L, Lindgren LO, Verdier G, et al. (2016) BODYGUARD is required for the biosynthesis of cutin in Arabidopsis. New Phytologist. DOI: 10.1111/nph.13924.

Javelle M, Vernoud V, Rogowsky PM and Ingram GC (2011) Epidermis: the formation and functions of a fundamental plant tissue. New Phytologist 189: 17–39.

Jeffree CE (2006) The fine structure of the plant cuticle. In: Riederer M and Müller C (eds) Biology of the Plant Cuticle, pp. 11–125. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kannangara R, Branigan C, Liu Y, et al. (2007) The transcription factor WIN1/SHN1 regulates cutin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 19: 1278–1294.

Kolattukudy PE (1981) Structure, biosynthesis and biodegradation of cutin and suberin. Annual Review of Plant Biology 32: 539–567.

Kolattukudy PE (2001) Polyesters in higher plants. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology 71: 1–49.

Kosma DK, Bourdenx B, Bernard A, et al. (2009) The impact of water deficiency on leaf cuticle lipids of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 151: 1918–1929.

Kosma DK, Molina I, Ohlrogge JB and Pollard M (2012) Identification of an Arabidopsis fatty alcohol: caffeoyl‐Coenzyme A acyltransferase required for the synthesis of alkyl hydroxycinnamates in root waxes. Plant Physiology 160: 237–248.

Kosma DK, Murmu J, Razeq FM, et al. (2014) AtMYB41 activates ectopic suberin synthesis and assembly in multiple plant species and cell types. Plant Journal 80: 216–229.

Kosma DK, Rice A and Pollard M (2015) Analysis of aliphatic waxes associated with root periderm or exodermis from eleven plant species. Phytochemistry 117: 351–362.

Kurdyukov S, Faust A, Trenkamp S, et al. (2006a) Genetic and biochemical evidence for involvement of HOTHEAD in the biosynthesis of long‐chain α‐,ω‐dicarboxylic fatty acids and formation of extracellular matrix. Planta 224: 315–329.

Kurdyukov S, Faust A, Nawrath C, et al. (2006b) The epidermis‐specific extracellular BODYGUARD controls cuticle development and morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 18: 321–339.

Landgraf R, Smolka U, Altmann S, et al. (2014) The ABC transporter ABCG1 is required for suberin formation in potato tuber periderm. Plant Cell 26: 3403–3415.

Lee SB, Jung SJ, Go YS, et al. (2009) Two Arabidopsis 3‐ketoacyl CoA synthase genes, KCS20 and KCS2/DAISY, are functionally redundant in cuticular wax and root suberin biosynthesis, but differentially controlled by osmotic stress. Plant Journal 60: 462–475.

Lee SB and Suh MC (2013) Recent advances in cuticular wax biosynthesis and its regulation in Arabidopsis. Molecular Plant 6: 246–249.

Li Y, Beisson F, Koo AJ, et al. (2007a) Identification of acyltransferases required for cutin biosynthesis and production of cutin with suberin‐like monomers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 18339–18344.

Li YH, Beisson F, Ohlrogge J and Pollard M (2007b) Monoacylglycerols are components of root waxes and can be produced in the aerial cuticle by ectopic expression of a suberin‐associated acyltransferase. Plant Physiology 144: 1267–1277.

Li Y and Beisson F (2009) The biosynthesis of cutin and suberin as an alternative source of enzymes for the production of bio‐based chemicals and materials. Biochimie 91: 685–691.

Li H, Pinot F, Sauveplane V, et al. (2010) Cytochrome P450 family member CYP704B2 catalyzes the ω‐hydroxylation of fatty acids and is required for anther cutin biosynthesis and pollen exine formation in rice. Plant Cell 22: 173–190.

Li‐Beisson Y, Pollard M, Sauveplane V, et al. (2009) Nanoridges that characterize the surface morphology of flowers require the synthesis of cutin polyester. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106: 22008–22013.

Li‐Beisson Y, Shorrosh B, Beisson F, et al. (2013) Acyl lipid metabolism. In: Last R (ed.) The Arabidopsis Book. Rockville, MD: American Society of Plant Biologists.

Lü S, Song T, Kosma DK, et al. (2009) Arabidopsis CER8 encodes LONG‐CHAIN ACYL‐COA SYNTHETASE 1 (LACS1) that has overlapping functions with LACS2 in plant wax and cutin synthesis. Plant Journal 59: 553–564.

Lü S, Zhao H, Des Marais DL, et al. (2012) Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM9 involvement in cuticle formation and maintenance of plant water status. Plant Physiology 159: 930–944.

Mc Farlane HE, Shin JH, Bird DA and Samuels AL (2010) Arabidopsis ABCG transporters, which are required for export of diverse cuticular lipids, dimerize in different combinations. Plant Cell 22: 3066–3075.

Matas AJ, Agustí J, Tadeo FR, Talón M and Rose JK (2010) Tissue‐specific transcriptome profiling of the citrus fruit epidermis and subepidermis using laser capture microdissection. Journal of Experimental Botany 61: 3321–3330.

Mazurek S, Mucciolo A, Humbel BM and Nawrath C (2013) Transmission Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy allows simultaneous assessment of cutin and cell‐wall polysaccharides of Arabidopsis petals. Plant Journal 74: 880–891.

Ménard R, Verdier G, Ors M, et al. (2014) Histone H2B monoubiquitination is involved in the regulation of cutin and wax composition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant & Cell Physiology 55: 455–466.

Moire L, Schmutz A, Buchala A, et al. (1999) Glycerol is a suberin monomer. New experimental evidence for an old hypothesis. Plant Physiology 119: 1137–1146.

Molina I, Bonaventure G, Ohlrogge J and Pollard M (2006) The lipid polyester composition of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus seeds. Phytochemistry 67: 2597–2610.

Molina I, Ohlrogge JB and Pollard M (2008) Deposition and localization of lipid polyester in developing seeds of Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Journal 53: 437–449.

Molina I, Li‐Beisson Y, Beisson F, Ohlrogge JB and Pollard M (2009) Identification of an Arabidopsis feruloyl‐coenzyme A transferase required for suberin synthesis. Plant Physiology 151: 1317–1328.

Molina I and Kosma D (2015) Role of HXXXD‐motif/BAHD acyltransferases in the biosynthesis of extracellular lipids. Plant Cell Reports 34: 587–601.

Nadakuduti SS, Pollard M, Kosma DK, et al. (2012) Pleiotropic phenotypes of the sticky peel mutant provide new insight into the role of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 in epidermal cell function in tomato. Plant Physiology 159: 945–960.

Naseer S, Lee Y, Lapierre C, et al. (2012) Casparian strip diffusion barrier in Arabidopsis is made of a lignin polymer without suberin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109: 10101–10106.

Nawrath C, Schreiber L, Franke RB, et al. (2013) Apoplastic diffusion barriers in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis Book 11: e0167.

Oshima Y, Shikata M, Koyama T, et al. (2013) MIXTA‐like transcription factors and WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 coordinately regulate cuticle development in Arabidopsis and Torenia fournieri. Plant Cell 25: 1609–1624.

Panikashvili D, Savaldi‐Goldstein S, Mandel T, et al. (2007) The Arabidopsis DESPERADO/AtWBC11 transporter is required for cutin and wax secretion. Plant Physiology 145: 1345–1360.

Panikashvili D, Shi JX, Schreiber L and Aharoni A (2009) The Arabidopsis DCR encoding a soluble BAHD acyltransferase is required for cutin polyester formation and seed hydration properties. Plant Physiology 151: 1773–1789.

Panikashvili D, Shi JX, Bocobza S, et al. (2010) The Arabidopsis DSO/ABCG11 transporter affects cutin metabolism in reproductive organs and suberin in roots. Molecular Plant 3: 563–755.

Panikashvili D, Shi JX, Schreiber L and Aharoni A (2011) The Arabidopsis ABCG13 transporter is required for flower cuticle secretion and patterning of the petal epidermis. New Phytologist 190: 113–124.

Philippe G, Gaillard C, Petit J, et al. (2016) Ester‐crosslink profiling of the cutin polymer of wild type and cutin synthase tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutants highlights different mechanisms of polymerization. Plant Physiology 170: 807–820.

Pinot F and Beisson F (2011) Cytochrome P450 metabolizing fatty acids in plants: characterization and physiological roles. FEBS Journal 278: 195–205.

Pollard M, Beisson F, Li Y and Ohlrogge JB (2008) Building lipid barriers: biosynthesis of cutin and suberin. Trends in Plant Science 13: 236–246.

Rani SH, Anantha Krishna TH, Saha S, Negi AS and Rajasekharan R (2010) Defective in cuticular ridges of Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene associated with surface cutin formation, encodes a soluble diacylglycerol acyltransferase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 285: 38337–38347.

Razeq FM, Kosma DK, Rowland O and Molina I (2014) Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform‐extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces. Phytochemistry 106: 188–196.

Rautengarten C, Ebert B, Ouellet M, et al. (2012) Arabidopsis deficient in cutin ferulate encodes a transferase required for feruloylation of ω‐hydroxy fatty acids in cutin polyester. Plant Physiology 158: 654–665.

Samuels L, Kunst L and Jetter R (2008) Sealing plant surfaces: cuticular wax formation by epidermal cells. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59: 683–707.

Schmidt HW and Schonherr J (1982) Development of plant cuticles – occurrence and role of non‐ester bonds in cutin of Clivia miniata Reg. leaves. Planta 156: 380–384.

Schnurr J, Shockey J and Browse J (2004) The acyl‐CoA synthetase encoded by LACS2 is essential for normal cuticle development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 16: 629–642.

Serra O, Soler M, Hohn C, et al. (2009) CYP86A33‐targeted gene silencing in potato tuber alters suberin composition, distorts suberin lamellae, and impairs the periderm's water barrier function. Plant Physiology 149: 1050–1060.

Serra O, Hohn C, Franke R, et al. (2010) A feruloyl transferase involved in the biosynthesis of suberin and suberin‐associated wax is required for maturation and sealing properties of potato periderm. Plant Journal 62: 277–290.

Serra O, Chatterjee S, Huang W and Stark RE (2012) Mini‐review: what nuclear magnetic resonance can tell us about protective tissues. Plant Science 195: 120–124.

Shi JX, Malitsky S, De Oliveira S, et al. (2011) SHINE transcription factors act redundantly to pattern the archetypal surface of Arabidopsis flower organs. PLoS Genetics 7: e1001388.

Shi JX, Adato A, Alkan N, et al. (2013) The tomato SlSHINE3 transcription factor regulates fruit cuticle formation and epidermal patterning. New Phytologist 197: 468–480.

Soler M, Serra O, Molinas M, et al. (2007) A genomic approach to suberin biosynthesis and cork differentiation. Plant Physiology 144: 419–431.

Stark RE and Tian S (2006) The cutin biopolymer matrix. In: Riederer M (ed.) Biology of the Plant Cuticle, pp. 126–144. UK: Blackwell Publishing Co.

Suh MC, Samuels AL, Jetter R, et al. (2005) Cuticular lipid composition, surface structure, and gene expression in Arabidopsis stem epidermis. Plant Physiology 139: 1649–1665.

Veličković D, Herdier H, Philippe G, et al. (2014) Matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging: a powerful tool for probing the molecular topology of plant cutin polymer. Plant Journal 80: 926–935.

Villena JF, Domínguez E, Stewart D and Heredia A (1999) Characterization and biosynthesis of non‐degradable polymers in plant cuticles. Planta 208: 181–187.

Vishwanath SJ, Kosma DK, Pulsifer IP, et al. (2013) Suberin‐associated fatty alcohols in Arabidopsis: distributions in roots and contributions to seed coat barrier properties. Plant Physiology 163: 1118–1132.

Vishwanath SJ, Delude C, Domergue F and Rowland O (2015) Suberin: biosynthesis, regulation, and polymer assembly of a protective extracellular barrier. Plant Cell Reports 34: 573–586.

Voisin D, Nawrath C, Kurdyukov S, et al. (2009) Dissection of the complex phenotype in cuticular mutants of Arabidopsis reveals a role of SERRATE as a mediator. PLoS Genetics 5: e1000703.

Wellesen K, Durst F, Pinot F, et al. (2001) Functional analysis of the LACERATA gene of Arabidopsis provides evidence for different roles of fatty acid omega ‐hydroxylation in development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98: 9694–9699.

Weng H, Molina I, Shockey J and Browse J (2010) Organ fusion and defective cuticle function in a lacs1 lacs2 double mutant of Arabidopsis. Planta 231: 1089–1100.

Wu R, Li S, He S, et al. (2011) CFL1, a WW domain protein, regulates cuticle development by modulating the function of HDG1, a class IV homeodomain transcription factor, in rice and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 23: 3392–3411.

Xiao F, Goodwin SM, Xiao Y, et al. (2004) Arabidopsis CYP86A2 represses Pseudomonas syringae type III genes and is required for cuticle development. EMBO Journal 23: 2903–2913.

Yadav V, Molina I, Ranathunge K, et al. (2014) ABCG transporters are required for suberin and pollen wall extracellular barriers in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 26: 3569–3588.

Yang W, Pollard M, Li‐Beisson Y, et al. (2010) A distinct type of glycerol‐3‐phosphate acyltransferase with sn‐2 preference and phosphatase activity producing 2‐monoacylglycerol. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107: 12040–12045.

Yang W, Simpson JP, Li‐Beisson Y, et al. (2012) A land‐plant‐specific glycerol‐3‐phosphate acyltransferase family in Arabidopsis: substrate specificity, sn‐2 preference, and evolution. Plant Physiology 160: 638–652.

Yeats TH, Howe KJ, Matas AJ, et al. (2010) Mining the surface proteome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit for proteins associated with cuticle biogenesis. Journal of Experimental Botany 61: 3759–3771.

Yeats TH, Martin LB, Viart HM, et al. (2012) The identification of cutin synthase: formation of the plant polyester cutin. Nature Chemical Biology 8: 609–611.

Yeats TH and Rose JK (2013) The formation and function of plant cuticles. Plant Physiology 163: 5–20.

Yeats TH, Huang W, Chatterjee S, et al. (2014) Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and putative orthologs comprise an ancient family of cutin synthase‐like (CUS) proteins that are conserved among land plants. Plant Journal 77: 667–675.

Zheng Z, Xia Q, Dauk M, et al. (2003) Arabidopsis AtGPAT1, a member of the membrane‐bound glycerol‐3‐phosphate acyltransferase gene family, is essential for tapetum differentiation and male fertility. Plant Cell 15: 1872–1887.

Zlotnik‐Mazori T and Stark RE (1988) Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cutin, an insoluble plant polyester. Macromolecules 21: 2412–2417.

Further Reading

Andersen TG, Barberon M and Geldner N (2015) Suberization‐the second life of an endodermal cell. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 28: 9–15.

Beisson F, Li‐Beisson Y and Pollard M (2012) Solving the puzzles of cutin and suberin polymer biosynthesis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 15: 329–337.

Graça J (2015) Suberin: the biopolyester at the frontier of plants. Frontiers in Chemistry 3: 62.

Nawrath C, Schreiber L, Franke RB, et al. (2013) Apoplastic diffusion barriers in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis Book 11: e0167.

Pollard M, Beisson F, Li Y and Ohlrogge J (2008) Building lipid barriers: biosynthesis of cutin and suberin. Trends in Plant Sciences 13: 236–246.

Vishwanath SJ, Delude C, Domergue F and Rowland O (2015) Suberin: biosynthesis, regulation, and polymer assembly of a protective extracellular barrier. Plant Cell Reports 34: 573–586.

Yeats TH and Rose JK (2013) The formation and function of plant cuticles. Plant Physiology 163: 5–20.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Li‐Beisson, Yonghua, Verdier, Gaëtan, Xu, Lin, and Beisson, Fred(May 2016) Cutin and Suberin Polyesters. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001920.pub3]