Renal Failure: Introduction


Renal failure is the state resulting from a reduction in renal excretory function sufficient to have adverse physiological effects. It may be chronic and irreversible or acute and potentially reversible; in its extreme form it is fatal. Treatment requires the use of artificial blood purification techniques, usually dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

Keywords: kidney; uraemia; dialysis; transplantation

Further Reading

Brady HR and Singer GG (1995) Acute renal failure. Lancet 346: 1533–1540.

Denton MD, Magee CC and Sayegh MH (1999) Immunosuppressive strategies in transplantation. Lancet 353: 1083–1091.

Forni LG and Hilton PJ (1997) Continuous hemofiltration in the treatment of acute renal failure. New England Journal of Medicine 336: 1303–1309.

Gokal R and Mallick NP (1999) Peritoneal dialysis. Lancet 352: 823–828.

Liano F, Pascual J and the Madrid Acute Renal Failure Study Group (1996) Epidemiology of acute renal failure: a prospective, multicenter, community‐based study. Kidney International 50: 811–818.

Mallick NP and Gokal R (1999) Haemodialysis. Lancet 353: 737–742.

Morris PJ (2000) Kidney Transplantation – Principles and Practice, 5th edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Roderick PJ, Ferris G and Feest TG (1998) The provision of renal replacement therapy for adults in England and Wales: recent trends and future directions. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 91: 581–587.

Walker R (1997) General management of end‐stage renal disease. British Medical Journal 315: 1429–1432.

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Winearls, CG(Apr 2001) Renal Failure: Introduction. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0002120]