Squint (Strabismus): Mechanisms and Significance


Strabismus, or squint, is a misalignment of the eyes. As strabismus may result in lifelong patterns of defective vision, early detection and treatment are of great importance.

Keywords: esotropia; exotropia; motility; accommodation; fusion

Figure 1.

Demonstration of the Hirschberg test.

Figure 2.

Demonstration of the alternate cover test.

Figure 3.

A 4‐year‐old girl with history of nonaccommodative esotropia.

Figure 4.

A 3‐year‐old boy with exotropia.


Further Reading

American Academy of Ophthalmology Basic and Clinical Science Course (2003–2004) Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, sect. 6, pp. 9–184. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Greenwald MJ and Parks MM (1990) Amblyopia. In: Tasman W and Jaeger EA (eds) Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 1 chap. 10, pp. 1–22. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott.

Ing MR (1983) Early surgical alignment for congenital esotropia. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 20: 11–18.

Kraft SP (1998) A surgical approach for Duane syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 25(3): 119–130.

Kraft SP, Scott WE (1986) Classification and surgical treatment of superior oblique palsies: I. Unilateral superior oblique palsies. In: Crawford JS, Flynn JT, Haik BG, et al. (eds) Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus: Transactions of the New Orleans Academy of Ophthalmology, pp. 15–38. New York: Raven Press.

Kushner BJ (1988) Exotropic deviations: a functional classification and approach to treatment. American Orthoptic Journal 38: 81–93.

Nelson LB, Calhoun JH and Harley RD (1998) Strabismus disorders. In: Olitsky SE and Nelson LB (eds) Pediatric Ophthalmology, chap. 8, pp. 146–198. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Parks MM (1975) Ocular Motility and Strabismus. Hagerstown, MD: Harper & Row.

Parks MM and Mitchell PR (1989) Ophthalmoplegic syndromes and trauma. In: Tasman W and Jaeger EA (eds) Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology, chap. 20, pp. 5–7. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott.

Tychesen L (1992) Binocular vision. In: Hart MM (ed.) Adler's Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Applications, 9th edn, pp. 773–853. St Louis: Mosby.

von Noorden GK (1996) Physiology of the ocular movements. In: Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility,chap. 4, pp. 53–84. New York: Mosby.

Wright KW (1991) Color Atlas of Ophthalmic Surgery: Strabismus, pp. 10–216. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott.

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De Larato, Nicole H, Khazaeni, Leila M, Volpe, Nicholas J, and Edmond, Jane C(Jan 2006) Squint (Strabismus): Mechanisms and Significance. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0004109]