Memory: Clinical Disorders


There are different forms of memory in the brain that use distinct anatomical structures to process various types of information in a variety of ways. Many disease processes can disrupt one or more of these forms of memory.

Keywords: memory; memory systems; Alzheimer disease

Figure 1.

The six basic forms of memory.

Figure 2.

The Papez circuit. Key components include the hippocampal formation, the fornix, the mammillary bodies (M), the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (AN), the cingulate gyrus and the presubiculum.

Figure 3.

Ribot's law. The injury can be due to any of the disorders described above, including the pathological changes of Alzheimer disease. The period of retrograde amnesia can last anywhere from several hours (in the case of transient global amnesia) to several years (in the case of surgical excision of the temporal lobes).



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Further Reading

Feinberg TE and Farah MJ (1997) Behavioural Neurology and Neuropsychology. New York: McGraw‐Hill.

Gazzaniga M (2000) The New Cognitive Neurosciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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Schacter DL (1996) Searching for Memory: The Brain, the Mind, and the Past. New York: Basic Books.

Schacter DL (2001) The Seven Sins of Memory: How the Mind Forgets and Remembers. Boston: Houghton‐Mifflin.

Schacter DL and Tulving E (1994) Memory Systems 1994. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Squire LR and Kandel ER (1999) Memory: From Mind to Molecules. New York: Scientific American Library.

Squire LR and Schacter DL (2002) Neuropsychology of Memory. New York: Guilford Press.

Troster AI (1998) Memory in Neurodegenerative Disease: Biological, Cognitive, and Clinical Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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Budson, Andrew E, and Price, Bruce H(Sep 2005) Memory: Clinical Disorders. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0004052]