Urinary Tract Stones


Urinary stones are crystal aggregates embedded in a glycoprotein matrix which may also contain some nonglycoproteins when associated with infection.

Keywords: crystallization inhibitors; glycoproteins; nephrology; urine; nephrocalcin; calcium; oxalate; cystinuria

Further Reading

Knorle R, Schnierle P and Koch A et al. (1994) Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein: role in inhibition and promotion of renal calcium oxalate stone formation studied with Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy. Clinical Chemistry 40: 1739–1743.

Lloyd SE, Pearce SHS, Fisher SE et al. (1996) A common molecular basis for three inherited kidney stone diseases. Nature (London) 379: 445–449.

Nakagawa Y, Ahmed M, Hall SL, Deganello S and Coe FL (1987) Isolation from human calcium oxalate renal stones of nephrocalcin, glycoprotein inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystal growth. Evidence that nephrocalcin from patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis is deficient in gamma‐carboxyglutamic acid. Journal of Clinical Investigation 79: 1782–1787.

Watts RWE (1996) Urinary stone disease (Urolithiasis). In: Weatherall DJ, Ledingham JGG and Warrell DA (eds) Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 3rd edn, pp. 3251–3257. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Watts RWE (1998) Aetiological factors in stone formation. In: Davison AM, Cameron JS, Grünfeld J‐P et al. (eds), Oxford Textbook of Clinical Nephrology, pp. 1317–1341. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Watts, Richard WE(Apr 2001) Urinary Tract Stones. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0002304]