Osteoarthritis is a pathological condition of articular cartilage and its underlying bone associated with biomechanical abnormalities and secondary inflammation. These changes result in cartilage loss, subchondral sclerosis, cyst and osteophyte formation, and the clinical sequelae of pain, swelling, deformity and loss of motion in affected joints.

Keywords: ageing; articular cartilage; cartilage transplantation; osteoarthritis; total joint replacement

Further Reading

Arden NK, Griffiths GO, Hart DJ et al. (1996) The association between osteoarthritis and osteoporotic fracture: the Chingford Study. British Journal of Rheumatology 35 (12): 1299–1304.

Attur MG, Patel RN, Patel PD et al. (1999) Tetracycline up‐regulates COX‐2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production independent of its effect on nitric oxide. Journal of Immunology 162(6): 3160–3167.

Cooper C, Cook PL, Osmond C et al. (1991) Osteoarthritis of the hip and osteoporosis of the proximal femur. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 50(8): 540–542.

Dieppe P (1999) Subchondral bone should be the main target for the treatment of pain and disease progression in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 7(3): 325–326.

Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT et al. (1995) The incidence and natural history of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis and Rheumatism 38(10): 1500–1505.

Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT et al. (1997) Risk factors for incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis and Rheumatism 40(4):728–733.

Foss MV and Byers PD (1972) Bone density, osteoarthritis of the hip, and fracture of the upper end of the femur. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 31(4):259–264.

Hart DJ, Doyle DV and Spector TD (1999) Incidence and risk factors for radiographic knee osteoarthritis in middle‐aged women: the Chingford Study. Arthritis and Rheumatism 42(1): 17–24.

Holderbaum D, Haqqi TM and Moskowitz RW (1999) Genetics and osteoarthritis: exposing the iceberg. Arthritis and Rheumatism 42(3): 397–405.

Lawrence RC, Helmick CG, Arnett FC et al. (1998) Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States . Arthritis and Rheumatism 41(5): 778–799.

Lohmander LS, Ionescu M, Jugessur H et al. (1999) Changes in joint cartilage aggrecan after knee injury and in osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 42(3): 534–544.

McAlindon TE, Jacques P, Zhang Y et al. (1996) Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis and Rheumatism 39(4): 648–656.

Petersson IF, Boegard T, Svensson B et al. (1998) Changes in cartilage and bone metabolism identified by serum markers in early osteoarthritis of the knee joint. British Journal of Rheumatism 37(1): 46–50.

Poole AR, Ionescu M, Swan A and Dieppe PA (1994) Changes in cartilage metabolism in arthritis are reflected by altered serum and synovial fluid levels of the cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan. Implications for pathogenesis. Journal of Clinical Investigations 94(1): 25–33.

Sahlstrom A, Johnell O and Redlund‐Johnell I (1997) The natural course of arthrosis of the knee. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 340: 152–157.

Sharif M, Saxne T, Shepstone L et al. (1995) Relationship between serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and disease progression in osteoarthritis of the knee joint. British Journal of Rheumatism 34(4): 306–310.

Shlopov BV, Smith GN Jr, Cole AA and Hasty KA (1999) Differential patterns of response to doxycycline and transforming growth factor beta 1 in the down‐regulation of collagenases in osteoarthritic and normal human chondrocytes. Arthritis and Rheumatism 42(4): 719–727.

Spector TD, Hart DJ and Doyle DV (1994) Incidence and progression of osteoarthritis in women with unilateral knee disease in the general population: the effect of obesity. Annals of Rheumatoid Diseases 53(9): 565–568.

Spector TD, Cicuttini F, Baker J, Loughlin J and Hart D (1996) Genetic influences on osteoarthritis in women: a twin study. British Medical Journal 312(7036): 940–943.

Vikkula M and Olsen BR (1996) Unravelling the molecular genetics of osteoarthritis. Annals of Medicine 28(4): 301–304.

Yu LP Jr, Burr DB, Brandt KD et al. (1996) Effects of oral doxycycline administration on histomorphometry and dynamics of subchondral bone in canine model of osteoarthritis. Journal of Rheumatism 23(1): 137–142.

Zavodoskii BV, Kovalenko EA, Fofanova NA et al. (1999) [The relation between the level of antibodies to the glycosaminoglycans of the cartilage in patients with osteoarthritis and the efficacy of treatment with chondroprotectors]. Terapevtichesxi Arkhiv 71(5): 47–50.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Chu, Constance R, and Thornhill, Thomas S(Apr 2001) Osteoarthritis. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0002309]