Infertility: Causes, Investigation and Management


In Western practice infertility, though not a disease or a symptom in the usual sense, is managed as an aspect of medicine, usually led from the gynaecological perspective but with major involvement of urologists, endocrinologists and others.

Keywords: IVF; GIFT; IUI; embryo cryopreservation; assisted reproduction; human cloning

Figure 1.

Ultrasonic image of a stimulated ovary.

Figure 2.

Ultrasonic image of a hyperstimulated ovary.

Figure 3.

Human embryo at the four‐cell stage.

Figure 4.

Human oocyte undergoing intracytoplasmic injection of a sperm (ICSI).

Figure 5.

Biopsy of an embryo undergoing removal of a single cell.

Figure 6.

Two cells from two embryos that have undergone fluorescent in situ hybridization.


Further Reading

Countinho EM and Spinolo P (eds) (1999) Reproductive Medicine: A Millennium Review. Pearl River, NY: Parthenon Publishing Group.

Hillier SG, Kitchener HC and Neilson JP (eds) (1996) Scientific Essentials of Reproductive Medicine. London: WB Saunders.

Templeton A, Cooke I and Shaughn O'Brien PM (eds) (1998) Evidence‐based Fertility Treatment. London: Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

Trounson AO and Gardner DK (eds) (2000) Handbook of In Vitro Fertilization, 2nd edn. Boca Raton: CRC.

Yen SSC, Jaffe RB and Barbieri RL (eds) (1999) Reproductive Endocrinology: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

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McVeigh, Enda, and Barlow, David(Mar 2002) Infertility: Causes, Investigation and Management. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0002314]