Harmful Algal Blooms


Harmful algal blooms result from the excessive growth of algae, with deleterious effects on human or animal health or on ecosystems; many produce biotoxins. The incidence of harmful algal blooms may be increasing as a result of eutrophication, transport to new areas by ballast water, or aquaculture/mariculture.

Keywords: biotoxins; eutrophication; phytoplankton; ballast water; fish kills


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Further Reading

Anderson DM and Garrison DJ (eds) (1997) The ecology and oceanography of harmful algal blooms. Limnology and Oceanography 42 (5, part 2).

Anderson DM, Cembella AD and Hallegraeff GM (eds) (1998) Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms. NATO ASI Series G. Ecological Sciences 41. Berlin: Springer.

Chorus I and Bartram J (eds) (1999) Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water. A Guide to their Public Health Consequences, Monitoring and Management. London: World Health Organization, Routledge.

Hallegraeff GM (1993) Review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia 32: 79–99.

Hallegraeff GM, Anderson DM, Cembella AD and Enevoldsen H (eds) (1995) Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. UNESCO, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission 33, Paris.

Lassus P, Arzul G, Erard‐Le Denn E, Gentien P and Marcaillou‐Le Baut C (eds) (1995) Harmful Marine Algal Blooms. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, October 1993, Nantes, France. Paris: Lavoisier.

Moestrup Ø, Blackburn S, Preisig H, Sivonen K and Kononen K (eds) (1996) Proceedings of the First International Congress on Toxic Cyanobacteria (Blue Green Algae) Bornholm 20–24 August 1995, and First Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation Symposium on Recent Developments in Cyanobacterial Reserach, Helsinki, 16–18 August 1995. Phycologia 35 (6 supplement).

Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML and Wyat T (eds) (1998) Harmful Algae. Proceedings of the VIII International Conference, Vigo, 1997. Xunta de Galicia and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. GRAFISANT, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Smayda TJ and Yuzuru Shimizu (eds) (1993) Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, Newport, RI, October 28–November 1 1991. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Yasumoto T and Murata M (1993) Marine toxins. Chemical Reviews 93: 1897–1909.

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Dortch, Quay(Aug 2001) Harmful Algal Blooms. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0002334]